Bog saxifrage Saxifraga hirculus, photographed by Rolf Stange.

Belongs within: Saxifragaceae.

Saxifraga, the saxifrages, is a large genus of herbaceous plants found mostly in northern temperate and arctic regions. In some species (such as members of section Micranthes), leaves grow as a basal rosette giving rise to a leafless flowering stem; in others, leaves are distributed along the flowering stem (Flora of China).

Characters (from Abrams 1944): Herbs, mostly perennial, with alternate, opposite or basal, entire, toothed or pinnatifid leaves and corymbosely paniculate or solitary perfect flowers. Hypanthium weakly to well developed, adnate to at least base of ovary. Sepals five. Petals five, perigynous. Stamens ten, inserted with petals; filaments subulate or broadened upwards and somewhat petaloid; anthers two-celled. Ovary almost superior to partly inferior, two-celled (at least at base), two-lobed at least at summit (three to five carpels in aberrant flowers); capsule-beaks short; stigmas truncate or capitate. Placentae axile. Capsule two-beaked, many-seeded, dehiscing along or between beaks. Seeds small, testa roughened or smooth.

    |--S. sect. Ciliatae [incl. S. sect. Hirculus] WO88
    |    |--S. amabilis Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. aristulata WO88
    |    |--S. brachypoda WO88
    |    |    |--S. b. var. brachypoda WO88
    |    |    `--S. b. var. fimbriata WO88
    |    |--S. brunonis WO88
    |    |--S. chumbiensis WO88
    |    |--S. cordigera WO88
    |    |--S. diversifolia WO88
    |    |--S. engleriana WO88
    |    |--S. glabricaulis WO88
    |    |--S. harai Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. hirculus WO88
    |    |--S. hispidula WO88
    |    |--S. hookeri WO88
    |    |--S. jacquemontiana WO88
    |    |--S. lepida WO88
    |    |--S. lychnitis WO88
    |    |--S. mallae Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. microphylla WO88
    |    |--S. montanella WO88
    |    |--S. moorcroftiana WO88
    |    |--S. nakaoi WO88
    |    |--S. nigroglandulosa WO88
    |    |--S. palpebrata WO88
    |    |--S. parnassifolia WO88
    |    |--S. pilifera WO88
    |    |--S. saginoides WO88
    |    |--S. sikkimensis WO88
    |    |--S. sphaeradena WO88
    |    |    |--S. s. ssp. sphaeradena WO88
    |    |    `--S. s. ssp. dhwojii WO88
    |    `--S. strigosa WO88
    |--S. sect. Micranthes WO88
    |    |--S. gageana WO88
    |    `--S. pallida WO88
    `--S. sect. Porophyllum [incl. S. sect. Kabschia] WO88
         |--S. afghanica WO88
         |--S. andersonii WO88
         |--S. hypostoma WO88
         |--S. subsessiliflora WO88
         `--S. williamsii WO88

Saxifraga incertae sedis:
  S. adscendens C55b
  S. affinis C55b
  S. aizoon C55a
  S. ajugaefolia C55a
  S. alboffiana D03
  S. alpigena O88
  S. asarifolia O88
  S. bicuspidata D03
  S. bryoides C55a
  S. bulbifera H91
  S. caesia PS98
  S. caveana O88
  S. cernua C55b
  S. consanguinea O88
  S. contraria O88
  S. controversa C55a
  S. cordillerarum D03
    |--S. c. var. cordillerarum D03
    `--S. c. var. magellanica D03
  S. corymbosa H09
  S. cotyledon C55b
  S. elegans C55b
  S. elliptica O88
  S. eschscholtzia YY22
  S. excellens O88
  S. georgei O88
  S. geum C55b
  S. granulata M-JT30
  S. granulifera O88
  S. hemisphaerica O88
  S. hirculoides O88
  S. hirsuta C55b
  S. hirta C55b
  S. humilis O88
  S. kingiana O88
  S. kumaunensis O88
  S. lamninamensis O88
  S. latiflora O88
  S. llonakhensis O88
  S. lowndesii O88
  S. macrostigma YY22
  S. melanocentra O88
  S. mertensiana Bong. 1832 CD07
  S. mira O88
  S. montana O88
    |--S. m. f. montana O88
    `--S. m. f. rubra O88
  S. mucronulata O88
    |--S. m. ssp. mucronulata O88
    `--S. m. ssp. sikkimensis O88
  S. mutata H09
    |--S. m. ssp. mutata H09
    `--S. m. ssp. demissa H09
  S. namdoensis O88
  S. nanella O88
  S. neopropagulifera O88
  S. nutans O88
  S. oppositifolia YY22
  S. parva O88
  S. perpusilla O88
  S. pseudo-pallida O88
  S. pulvinaria O88
  S. punctulata O88
  S. rhodopetala O88
  S. rolwalingensis O88
  S. rosacea M-JT30
  S. sibirica O88
  S. staintonii O88
  S. stella-aurea O88
    |--S. s. var. stella-aurea O88
    `--S. s. var. polyadena O88
  S. stellaris YY22
  S. stenophylla O88
    |--S. s. ssp. stenophylla O88
    `--S. s. ssp. hoffmeisteri O88
  S. stolitzkae O88
  S. tangutica O88
  S. tentaculata O88
  S. umbrosa C55b
  S. zimmermannii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated


Abrams, L. 1944. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States vol. 2. Stanford University Press.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[M-JT30] Marsden-Jones, E. M., & W. B. Turrill. 1930. Hybridization in certain genera of the British flora. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 36.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27-46.

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71-90.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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