Male ologamasid, from here.

Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Ologamasidae are a family of predatory mites found worldwide, though most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere. Some species are found in intertidal habitats such as members of the genera Hydrogamasus and Periseius. Phoresy is rare among ologamasids but some species of the genera Epiphis and Iphidosoma are associated with carabid beetles. Members of the genera Euryparasitus and Cyrtolaelaps are commonly found in the nests of small mammals (Lindquist et al. 2009). Cyrtolaelaps is characterised by having some of the setae on the dorsal shields distinctly pilose or serrated. Species of Euryparasitus have the tibia and tarsus of the second legs fused in the males (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Luxton 1986): Dorsum of adult with holonotal shield or two separate shields; peritrematal shield usually fused with exopodal IV shield, often also with ventro-anal shield.

<==Ologamasidae [Epiphidinae, Euryparasitidae, Gamasellidae, Gamasellini, Gamasiphidae, Ologamasinae]
    |--Litogamasus Lee 1970 L86, L90
    |    |--*L. setosus (Kramer 1898) [=Cyrtolaelaps setosus] L90
    |    `--L. falcipes Lee & Hunter 1974 L90
    |--Evanssellus Ryke 1961 H98
    |    |--*E. foliatus Ryke 1961 R61
    |    `--E. medusa (Lee 1967) [=Heterogamasus medusa] H98
    |--Parasitiphis Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--*P. littoralis Womersley 1956 L90
    |    |--P. aurora Lee 1970 L90
    |    `--P. jeanneli (André 1947) [incl. Hydrogamasus (Austrohydrogamasus) watsoni Hirschmann 1966] SL71
    |--Stylochirus Canestrini & Canestrini 1882 L91 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Gamasiphis (*Periphis)’ hemisphaericus B16
    |    `--S. rarior (Berlese 1916) FH93 [=Gamasiphis (*Epiphis) rarior FH93, B16]
    |--Gamasitus Womersley 1956 H98
    |    `--G. obscurus Womersley 1956 H98
    |--Neogamasellevans Loots & Ryke 1967 H98
    |    `--N. berlesei (Womersley 1956) [=Queenslandolaelaps berlesei] H98
    |--Pyriphis Lee 1970 H98
    |    `--P. pyrenoides (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus pyrenoides] H98
    |--Queenslandolaelaps Womersley 1956 H98
    |    `--Q. vitzthumi Womersley 1956 H98
    |--Solugamasus Lee 1973 H98
    |    `--S. mustela Lee 1973 H98
    |--Gamasiphoides Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--G. aitkeni Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--G. macquariensis (Hirschmann 1966) [=Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) macquariensis] SL71
    |    `--G. propinquus (Womersley 1956) [=Gamasiphis propinqua, Gamasiphoides propinqua] H98
    |--Rhodacaroides Willmann 1959 L86
    |    |--R. aegyptiacus Willmann 1959 L86
    |    `--R. minyaspis Lee 1973 H98
    |--Euryparasitus Oudemans 1902 LKW09, FH93 [incl. Eurylaelaps Oudemans 1902 FH93]
    |    |--E. emarginatus (Koch 1839) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--E. calcarator (Banks 1910) [=Gamasus calcarator] FH93
    |--Iphidosoma Berlese 1892 L91
    |    |--*I. fimetarium (Müller 1859) L91 [=Gamasoides fimetarium S22]
    |    `--I. razumovae LKW09
    |--Hiniphis Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--H. bipala Lee 1973 H98
    |    `--H. hinnus Lee 1970 H98
    |--Laelaptiella Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--L. anomala Womersley 1956 H98
    |    `--L. mackerrasae (Domrow 1957) [=Gamasiphis mackerrasae] H98
    |--Euepicrius Womersley 1942 H98
    |    |--E. filamentosus Womersley 1942 H98
    |    |--E. lootsi Lee 1970 H98
    |    `--E. queenslandicus Womersley 1956 H98
    |--Geogamasus Lee 1970 L86
    |    |--G. fibularis Karg 1976 L86
    |    |--G. howardi Lee 1970 H98
    |    `--G. minimus Lee 1973 H98
    |--Hydrogamasellus Hirschmann 1966 L86
    |    |--H. antarcticus (Trägårdh 1907) [=Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) antarcticus] H66
    |    |--H. antennatus Karg 1976 L86
    |    `--H. ubatubaensis (Hirschmann 1966) [=Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) ubatubaensis] H66
    |--Acugamasus Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--A. cursor Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--A. elachyaspis Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--A. punctatus (Womersley 1942) [=Digamasellus punctatus, Cyrtolaelaps punctatus] H98
    |    |--A. semipunctatus (Womersley 1942) [=Digamasellus semipunctatus, Cyrtolaelaps semipunctatus] H98
    |    `--A. watsoni (Hirschmann 1956) [=Gamasellus watsoni] SL71
    |--Caliphis Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--C. calvus Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--C. hickmani (Womersley 1956) [=Gamasiphis hickmani] H98
    |    |--C. novaezelandiae (Womersley 1956) [=Gamasellus (Neogamasiphis) novaezelandiae] SL71
    |    |--C. queenslandicus (Womersley 1956) [=Gamasiphis queenslandicus] H98
    |    |--C. schusteri (Hirschmann 1956) [=Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) schusteri] SL71
    |    `--C. tamborinensis (Womersley 1956) [=Gamasiphis hickmani var. tamborinensis] H98
    |--Onchogamasus Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--O. communis Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--O. pumilio Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--O. quasicurtipilus Lee 1970 H98
    |    `--O. virguncula Lee 1973 H98
    |--Hydrogamasus Berlese 1892 FH93
    |    |--*H. littoralis (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) [=Gamasus littoralis] ET79
    |    |--H. antarcticus Womersley 1937 LKW09, SL71
    |    |--H. giardi (Berlese & Trouessart 1889) H66
    |    |--H. kensleri Luxton 1967 L90
    |    |--H. racovitzai LKW09
    |    |--H. salinus (Laboulbene 1851) H66 [=Gamasus salinus E57]
    |    `--H. vitzthumi Hirschmann 1966 H66
    |--Cyrtolaelaps Berlese 1887 [incl. Protolaelaps Trägårdh 1912] FH93
    |    |--*C. mucronatus (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) ET79 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. aster (Berl. 1918) S61, S22 [=Gamasellus (Protolaelaps) aster S61]
    |    |--C. cervus S22
    |    |--C. hammeni H83
    |    |--C. minor K91
    |    `--C. rectus (Berlese 1920) [=Gamasellus (Protolaelaps) rectus; incl. C. (Gamasellus) leggetti Ryke 1962] FH93
    |--Antennolaelaps Womersley 1956 [incl. Stylogamasus Womersley 1956] H98
    |    |--A. affinis Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--A. aremenae Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--A. celox Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--A. convexa (Womersley 1956) [=Stylogamasus convexus] H98
    |    `--A. testudo Lee 1970 H98
    |--Athiasella Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--A. australica (Womersley 1942) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. dentata (Womersley 1942) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. markmitchelli (Lee 1970) [=Heydeniella markmitchelli] H98
    |    |--A. relata (Womersley 1942) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--A. relicta (Womersley 1942) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--Gamasiphis Berlese 1904 (see below for synonymy) FH93
    |    |--G. australicus Womersley 1956 H98
    |    |--G. elegantellus T31
    |    |--G. elongatulus T31
    |    |--G. femoralis (Banks 1916) [=Cyrtolaelaps femoralis] H98
    |    |--G. fornicatus Lee 1970 H98
    |    |--G. illotus Fox 1949 FH93
    |    |--G. lenifornicatus Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--G. pilosellus T31
    |    |--G. pulchellus (Berlese 1887) [=Gamasus pulchellus; incl. Laelaps bermudaensis Ewing 1920] FH93
    |    |--G. saccus Lee 1973 H98
    |    |--G. setosus Womersley 1956 H98
    |    `--G. uncifer Trägårdh 1931 T31
    |--Gamaselliphis Ryke 1961 FH93
    |--Periseius Womersley 1961 [incl. Psammonsella Haq 1965] FH93
    |    |--P. brasiliensis Hirschmann 1966 L86
    |    |--P. littorale H83
    |    `--P. nobskae (Haq 1965) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Cymiphis SL71
    |    |--C. cymosus (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    |--C. dumosus (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    |--C. leptosceles (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    |--C. mansoni (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    |--C. nucilis (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    |--C. validus (Lee 1966) SL71
    |    `--C. watsoni (Hirschmann 1966) [=Gamasiphis watsoni] SL71
    `--Gamasellus Berlese 1892 LKW09, FH93 [incl. Laelogamasus Berlese 1905 FH93]
         |--*G. falciger (Canestrini 1881) [=Gamasus falciger] LI89
         |--G. alpinus Schweizer 1949 S61
         |--G. bellavistae Emberson 1967 FH93
         |--G. concinus (Womersley 1942) [=Digamasellus concina, Cyrtolaelaps concinnus, D. concinnus] H98
         |--G. cooperi (Womersley 1961) [=Cyrtolaelaps cooperi] H98
         |--G. cophinus Lee 1973 H98
         |--G. discutatus (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus discutatus] H98
         |--G. gressitti H73
         |--G. grossi Lee 1973 H98
         |--G. humosus Ishikawa 1969 LI89
         |--G. lanceolatus Liang & Ishikawa 1989 LI89
         |--G. lativentralis Ishikawa 1983 LI89
         |--G. litoprothrix (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus litoprothrix] H98
         |--G. montanus W88
         |--G. nivalis Schweizer 1949 S61
         |--G. occidentalis KA90
         |--G. racovitzai (Trouessart 1903) MSU91, L86 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--G. r. racovitzai MSU91
         |    `--G. r. neoorcadensis MSU91
         |--G. simpliciseta Liang & Ishikawa 1989 LI89
         |--G. southcotti (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus southcotti] H98
         |--G. spiricornis S61
         |--G. tasmanicus (Womersley 1956) [=Digamasellus tasmanicus, Cyrtolaelaps tasmanicus] H98
         |--G. tianmuensis Liang & Ishikawa 1989 LI89
         |--G. tindalei (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus tindalei] H98
         |--G. tragardhi (Womersley 1942) [=Digamasellus tragardhi, Cyrtolaelaps tragardhi] H98
         |--G. venustus Ishikawa 1983 LI89
         |--G. vibrissatus Emberson 1967 K98
         |--G. virgosus (Lee 1966) [=Ologamasus virgosus] H98
         `--G. xini Liang & Ishikawa 1989 LI89

Nomen nudum: Gamasellus arcticus Danks 1981 FH93

Athiasella australica (Womersley 1942) H98 [=Hydrogamasus australicus H98, Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) australicus H98, H66, Heydeniella australica H98]

Athiasella dentata (Womersley 1942) H98 [=Hydrogamasus dentatus H98, Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) dentatus H98, H66, Heydeniella dentata H98]

Athiasella relata (Womersley 1942) H98 [=Hydrogamasus relatus H98, Gamasellus (Hydrogamasellus) relatus H98, H66, Heydeniella relata H98]

Athiasella relicta (Womersley 1942) [=Hydrogamasus relictus, Gamasellus relictus, Heydeniella relicta; incl. Hydrogamasus relictus var. major Womersley 1942] H98

*Cyrtolaelaps mucronatus (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) ET79 [=Gamasus micronatus ET79, Gamasellus (Protolaelaps) mucronatus S61; incl. Asca affinis Oudms. 1902 E57, Gamasellus brevispinosus Trägårdh 1910 S22, Protolaelaps brevispinosus S22]

Euryparasitus emarginatus (Koch 1839) FH93 [=Gamasus emarginatus FH93; incl. G. setiger Koch 1839 FH93, G. terribilis Michael 1886 FH93, *Euryparasitus terribilis ET79]

Gamasellus racovitzai (Trouessart 1903) MSU91, L86 [=Gamasus racovitzai L86, Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) racovitza L86, Hydrogamasellus racovitzai L86, Parasitus racovitzai T04; incl. Zercon tuberculatus Tragardh 1907 L86]

Gamasiphis Berlese 1904 [incl. Heteroiphis Trägårdh 1952, Micriphis Berlese 1914, Neogamasiphis Trägårdh 1952] FH93

Periseius nobskae (Haq 1965) FH93 [=Psammonsella nobskae FH93; incl. Pe. (Psammonsella) schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66, FH93]

Stylochirus Canestrini & Canestrini 1882 L91 [incl. Epiphis Berlese 1916 B16, Megaliphis Willmann 1938 FH93, Periphis Berlese 1914 FH93, Physallolaelaps Berlese 1908 FH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H83] Hammen, L. van der. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the soil-fauna of New Guinea. Zoologische Verhandelingen 206: 1–36.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

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[K98] Klimov, P. B. 1998. A new tribe of acarid mites of the subfamily Rhizoglyphinae (Acariformes, Acaridae). Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 1–19.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199–204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LI89] Liang L.-R. & K. Ishikawa. 1989. Occurrence of Gamasellus (Acarina, Gamasida, Ologamasidae) on Tian-mu Mountains in east China. Reports of Research, Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College 20: 143–152.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[L91] Lundqvist, L. 1991. Rearing deutonymphs of Iphidosoma fimetarium (J. Müller), a mesostigmatic mite associated with carabid beetles. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 447–452. Chapman & Hall: London.

[L86] Luxton, M. 1986. Acari: Rhodacaridae Ologamasinae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 635–637. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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Last updated: 13 April 2021.

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