Common moonwort Botrychium lunaria, photographed by Abalg.

Belongs within: Monilophyta.

The Ophioglossaceae include the adder's tongue ferns. Members of this family have only one or two leaves per plant, with the leaf divided between a sterile basal section and a spore-producing distal section. Gametophytes are subterranean and non-photosynthesising (Wagner & Wagner), as in their sister group the Psilotaceae.

Synapomorphies (from Cantino et al 2007): Root hairs absent; planation present in distal regions only of vegetative leaves, leaf base dilated, leaf divided between basal trophophore and distal sporophore; exarch protoxylem present in stem; sclerenchyma absent from cortex; perispore ultrastructure fibrillar.

<==Ophioglossaceae [Ophioglosseae, Ophioglossidae, Ophioglossophyta, Ophioglossophytina, Ophioglossopsida]
    |  i. s.: Mankyua chejuense CD07
    |         Chiroglossa palmata M03
    |--Helminthostachys zeylanica (Linnaeus) Hooker 1840 SL05, I88 [=Osmunda zeylanica Linnaeus 1753 I88]
    |--Ophioglossum SL05
    |    |--O. coriaceum A27
    |    |--O. engelmanii MK00
    |    |--O. lusitanium A27
    |    |--O. palmatum J87
    |    |--O. petiolatum Hooker 1823 I88
    |    |--O. reticulatum Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |    `--O. vulgatum Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    `--+--Botrypus SL05
       |    |--B. strictus SL05
       |    `--B. virginianus SL05
       `--+--Sceptridium SL05
          |    |--S. lunarioides SL05
          |    `--+--S. dissectum SL05
          |       `--S. japonicum SL05
          `--Botrychium SL05
               |  i. s.: B. australe A27
               |         B. daucifolium Wallich ex Hooker & Greville 1829 (see below for synonymy) I88
               |         B. flabellifolium A27
               |         B. lanuginosum Wallich ex Hooker & Greville 1829 (see below for synonymy) I88
               |         B. multifidum (Gmelin) Ruprecht 1859 (see below for synonymy) I88
               |         B. ternatum A27
               |         B. virginianum J87
               |--B. lanceolatum SL05
               `--+--B. campestre SL05
                  |--B. lunaria (Linnaeus) Swartz 1801 SL05, I88 [=Osmunda lunaria Linnaeus 1753 I88]
                  `--B. simplex SL05

Botrychium daucifolium Wallich ex Hooker & Greville 1829 [=Sceptridium daucifolium (Wallich) Lyon 1905; incl. S. daucifolium var. parvum (v. A. v. R.) Nishida 1966] I88

Botrychium lanuginosum Wallich ex Hooker & Greville 1829 [=B. virginianum var. lanuginosum (Wallich) Bedd. 1883, Japonobotrychium lanuginosum (Wallich) Nishida ex Tagawa 1958, Osmundopteris lanuginosum (Wallich) Nishida 1952; incl. J. lanuginosum var. nepalense Nishida 1966] I88

Botrychium multifidum (Gmelin) Ruprecht 1859 [=Osmunda multifida Gmelin 1768, Sceptridium multifidum (Gmelin) Nishida ex Tagawa 1958] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[M03] Macloskie, G. 1903. Pteridophyta, ferns and fernlike plants. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 127-138. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[MK00] McCourt, R. M., K. G. Karol, J. Bell, K. M. Helm-Bychowski, A. Grajewska, M. F. Wojciechowski & R. W. Hoshaw. 2000. Phylogeny of the conjugating green algae (Zygnemophyceae) based on rbcL sequences. Journal of Phycology 36: 747-758.

[SL05] Small, R. L., E. B. Lickey, J. Shaw & W. D. Hauk. 2005. Amplification of noncoding chloroplast DNA for phylogenetic studies in lycophytes and monilophytes with a comparative example of relative phylogenetic utility from Ophioglossaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 509-522.

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