Crassulaceae

Stonecrop Sedum reflexum, from here.


Belongs within: Saxifragales.
Contains: Rhodiola.

The Crassulaceae is a family of succulent plants found nearly worldwide, but most diverse in north-temperate regions and South Africa. In members of the genus Crassula, the leaves typically bear numerous hydathodes (water-exuding pores); in other genera, forming the subfamily Sempervivoideae, the leaves have only a single apical or subapical hydathode (Thiede & Eggli 2007).

Characters (from Thiede & Eggli 2007): Perennial or rarely annual or hapaxanthic herbs to (sub)shrubs, rarely aquatics, treelike, epiphytic or scandent, with more or less succulent leaves, sometimes with succulent stems, rhizomes, underground caudices or succulent roots; indumentum of uni- or multicellular, often glandular hairs, or plants glabrous. Leaves (sub)sessile or rarely petiolate, usually alternate and spiral, or opposite-decussate or rarely whorled, frequently aggregated into rosettes, simple, rarely compound, usually entire or crenate to lobed, rarely dissected, estipulate. Inflorescences usually terminal, bracteate, usually many-flowered, basically thyrsoids, also pleio-, di- or monochasia (cincinni) or rarely true panicles, racemes or spikes. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic, usually proterandrous, (3-)5(-32)merous; sepals free or connate at base, sometimes distinctly unequal in size; petals free or connate to a short to long corolla tube; stamens as many as or usually twice as many as petals; filaments free or more or less connate with a tubular corolla; anthers basifixed in basal pit, tetrasporangiate, bilocular at anthesis, dehiscence latrorse or slightly introrse by longitudinal slits; ovary usually more or less superior to semi-inferior; carpels as many as petals, usually free or almost so, sessile or sometimes stipitate, tapering gradually to abruptly into short to long, erect to divergent stylodia, basally with a small to conspicuous dorsal nectary scale; stigma small, (sub)apical, often poorly differentiated; ovules usually many, rarely few to one, anatropous, crassi- or tenuinucellate, bitegmic, on parietal to marginal placentae. Fruits usually follicles, usually more or less completely dehiscent along the ventral suture, rarely few-seeded, indehiscent and nutlike; seeds smallish, usually 0.5-1 mm long, elongate-fusiform, longitudinally ridged (costate) or papillate (uni- or rarely multipapillate), rarely (nearly) smooth, usually brownish; embryo small, straight; endosperm cellular, scanty.

<==Crassulaceae
    |--Crassula BC98 [Crassuloideae T00]
    |    |  i. s.: C. aurusbergensis CV06
    |    |         C. ausensis CV06
    |    |           |--C. a. ssp. ausensis CV06
    |    |           |--C. a. ssp. giessii CV06
    |    |           `--C. a. ssp. titanopsis CV06
    |    |         C. colorata OS04
    |    |         C. decumbens OS04
    |    |         C. elegans CV06
    |    |           |--C. e. ssp. elegans CV06
    |    |           `--C. e. ssp. namibensis CV06
    |    |         C. exserta OS04
    |    |         C. falcata JB99
    |    |         C. luederitzii CV06
    |    |         C. lycopodioides BT72
    |    |         C. natans GK00
    |    |         C. numaisensis CV06
    |    |         C. paludosa D03
    |    |         C. pedicellosa GK00
    |    |         C. peduncularis GK00
    |    `--C. sect. Glomeratae BC98
    |         |--C. basaltica BC98
    |         |--C. campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 (see below for synonymy) BC98
    |         `--C. tillaea BC98
    `--Sempervivoideae [Cotyledonoideae, Echeverieae, Sedoideae] T00
         |--Sempervivum KC83
         |    |--S. montanum KC83
         |    `--S. tectorum C55b
         |--Kalanchoe K03 [Kalanchoeae T00]
         |    |--K. blossfeldiana MH98
         |    |--K. pinnata K03
         |    `--K. spathulata LK14
         `--Sedum T00
              |--S. album Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              |--S. altissimum C74
              |--S. anglicum G60b
              |--S. caespitosum (Cavanilles) de Candolle 1828 PL04
              |--S. cepaea [incl. S. galioides, S. spathulatum] C55a
              |--S. dasyphyllum C55b
              |--S. gagei O88
              |--S. henrici-robertii O88
              |--S. holei O88
              |--S. litoreum PT98
              |--S. magae O88
              |--S. oreades O88
              |--S. perpusillum O88
              |--S. przewalskii O88
              |--S. pulchellum D51
              |--S. reflexum C55b
              |--S. repens C55a
              |--S. roborowskii O88
              |--S. sexangulare M08
              |--S. trullipetalum O88
              `--S. tuberiferum GR98

Crassulaceae incertae sedis:
  Rhodiola O88
  Rosularia O88
    |--R. marnieri O88
    `--R. semiensis B06
  Aeonium arboreum Y98
  Umbilicus PL04
    |--U. horizontalis PT98
    `--U. rupestris (Salisbury) Dandy 1948 PL04
  Andromischus schuldtianus CV06
    |--A. s. ssp. schuldtianus CV06
    |--A. s. ssp. brandbergensis CV06
    `--A. s. ssp. juttae CV06
  Tylecodon CV06
    |--T. aridimontanus CV06
    `--T. aurusbergensis CV06
  Bryophyllum H06
    |--B. daigremontianum K10
    `--B. delagoense H06
  Tillaea Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--T. acutifolia Kirk 1899 A61
    |--T. debilis Col. ex Hook. f. 1852 A61
    |--T. helmsii Kirk 1899 [=Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Berger 1930] A61
    |--T. kirkii Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. moschata (Forst. f.) DC. 1828 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. multicaulis Petrie 1887 A61
    |--T. purpurata Hook. f. 1847 [=Crassula purpurata (Hook. f.) Domin 1925] A61
    |--T. pusilla Kirk 1899 [incl. T. pusilla var. brevia Kirk 1899] A61
    |--T. recurva Hooker 1856 [=Crassula recurva (Hooker) Ostenf. 1918 non Brown 1890] A61
    |--T. sieberiana Schult. 1827 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. sinclairii Hook. f. 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--T. vaillantii C55b

Crassula campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 [=Tetraphyle campestre Ecklon & Zeyh. 1837; incl. C. pentandra ssp. catalaunica Vigo & Terradas 1969] BC98

Tillaea kirkii Allan 1961 [=T. diffusa Kirk 1892 non Willd. ex Steud. 1841, Crassula diffusa (Kirk) Ckn. 1909 non Sol. ex Ait. 1789] A61

Tillaea moschata (Forst. f.) DC. 1828 [=Crassula moschata Forst. f. 1789, Bulliarda moschata Urv. 1826] A61

Tillaea sieberiana Schult. 1827 [=Crassula sieberiana (Schult.) Druce 1917; incl. T. muscosa Forst. f. 1786 non Linnaeus 1753, T. verticillaris DC. 1828] A61

Tillaea sinclairii Hook. f. 1864 [incl. T. novae-zelandiae Petrie 1893, T. novae-zelandiae var. obtusa Kirk 1899, T. sinclairii var. obtusa (Kirk) Cheeseman 1906] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BC98] Brullo, S., G. Campo, C. Marcenò, S. Romano & G. Siracusa. 1998. Crassula campestris (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Endl. (Crassulaceae), a new record for the Italian flora. Willdenowia 28: 53–58.

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[JB99] Johansson, J., R. Berg, A. Pifferi, S. Svenberg & L. O. Bjorn. 1999. Time-resolved studies of light propagation in Crassula and Phaseolus leaves. Photochemistry and Photobiology 69: 242–247.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

Thiede, J., & U. Eggli. 2007. Crassulaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 9. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae pp. 83-118. Springer.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

1 comment:

  1. Are stone crop and Rhodiola the same what are the differences......The plant shown is growing in Northern Canada in the Yukon Territory in our small capital city of whse.

    ReplyDelete

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