Sphaeridium scarabaeoides, copyright Joyce Gross.

Belongs within: Hydrophiloidea.
Contains: Hydrophilini, Berosini, Chaetarthriini.

The Hydrophilidae are a group of beetles in which the majority of species are aquatic though many members of the subfamily Sphaeridiinae are terrestrial. Aquatic species swim by alternate movements of the hind legs and usually breathe using a bubble of air covering the ventral surface of the abdomen (Van Tassell 2001). Distinctive features of the Hydrophilidae include well developed maxillary palps and antennae with a three-segmented club preceded by a small cup-like segment or cupule. Larvae are phytophagous or saprophagous but the adults are predators (Lawrence & Britton 1991). Several subfamilies are recognised of which the Epimetopinae are distinguished by the presence of a median canthus dividing the eye, and a projecting pronotum mostly covering the head (Van Tassell 2001).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Antennae usually short, 7- to 9-segmented, with 3-segmented pubescent club preceded by glabrous cup-like segment (cupule); clypeus large, frontoclypeal suture more or less angulate, often attached to median line (endocarina); maxillary palps well developed, usually longer than antennae. Larvae with six stemmata on each side, usually possessing metapneustic respiratory system with only eighth spiracles function and located in respiratory chamber (atrium) at end of abdomen.

Hydrophilidae [Sphaeridiidae]
    |--Amphiopinae LB91
    |--Epimetopus Lacordaire 1854 (see below for synonymy) VT01
    |    `--E. lanceolatus Perkins 2012 B14
    |--Hydrochus Leach 1817 (see below for synonymy) VT01
    |    |--H. chubu Balfour-Browne & Satô 1962 I92
    |    `--H. serricollis LB91
    |--Hydrophilinae [Chaetarthriinae] VT01
    |    |  i. s.: Troglochares Spangler 1981 S86
    |    |           `--T. ashmolei Spangler 1981 S86
    |    |--Hydrophilini BB68
    |    |--Berosini VT01
    |    |--Chaetarthriini M74
    |    |--Laccobius Erichson 1837 [Laccobiini, Oocyclini] VT01
    |    |    `--L. nigriceps [incl. L. nigriceps var. maculiceps] C01
    |    |--Sperchopsini VT01
    |    |    |--Sperchopsis LeConte 1862 VT01
    |    |    |    `--S. tesselata VT01
    |    |    `--Ametor Semenov 1900 VT01
    |    |         |--A. latus (Horn 1873) VT01
    |    |         `--A. scabrosus (Horn 1873) VT01
    |    `--Anacaenini B14
    |         |--Paracymus Thompson 1867 VT01
    |         |--Crenitis Bedel 1881 VT01
    |         |--Horelophus [Horelophinae] B14
    |         |    `--H. walkeri Orchymont 1913 B14
    |         `--Anacaena Thomson 1859 (see below for synonymy) VT01
    |              `--A. limbata VT01
    `--Sphaeridiinae B14
         |  i. s.: Notocercyon LB91
         |         Pseudohydrobius LB91
         |           |--P. flavus Lea 1919 L19
         |           `--P. floricola L19
         |--Omicrus Sharp 1879 [Omicrini] VT01
         |    |--O. intermedius Smetana 1975 VT01
         |    `--O. palmarum (Schwarz 1878) VT01
         |--Sphaeridium Fabricius 1775 [incl. Sphaeridiolinus Minozzi 1921, Spaeridiolinus (l. c.); Sphaeridiini] VT01
         |    |--S. bipustulatum [incl. S. bipustulatum var. quadrimaculatum] C01
         |    |--S. dimidiatum B70
         |    |--S. discolor LB91
         |    |--S. pustulatum VT01
         |    `--S. scarabaeoides (Linnaeus 1758) B14
         |--Coelostomatini VT01
         |    |--Coelostoma fabrieii P05
         |    |--Phaenonotum Sharp 1882 VT01
         |    |    `--P. exstriatum VT01
         |    `--Dactylosternum Wollaston 1854 [=Dactilosternum (l. c.)] VT01
         |         |--D. abdominale Z93
         |         `--D. hydrophiloides Z93
         `--Megasternini VT01
              |--Pelosoma Mulsant 1844 [incl. Merosoma Balfour-Brown 1939] VT01
              |--Pemelus Horn 1890 VT01
              |--Deltostethus Sharp 1882 [incl. Ictinosternum Smetana 1978] VT01
              |    `--D. columbiensis VT01
              |--Agna Smetana 1978 VT01
              |    `--A. capillata VT01
              |--Tectosternum Balfour-Browne 1958 [incl. Genyon Smetana 1978] VT01
              |    `--T. naviculare VT01
              |--Megasternum Mulsant 1844 VT01
              |    `--M. concinnum VT01
              |--Cryptopleurum Mulsant 1844 VT01
              |    `--C. atomarium C01
              |--Cycrillum Knisch 1921 VT01
              |    `--C. strigicolle (Sharp 1882) VT01
              |--Oosternum Sharp 1882 VT01, S62 [incl. Crypteuna Motschulsky 1863 (nom. rej.) VT01]
              |    |--O. attacomis Spangler 1962 S62
              |    |--O. costatum S62
              |    `--O. pubescens S62
              `--Cercyon Leach 1817 VT01
                   |--C. analis (Paykull 1798) E02
                   |--C. haemorrhoidalis LB91
                   |--C. marinus VT01
                   `--C. quisiquilius [incl. C. quisiquilius var. scutellare] C01

Hydrophilidae incertae sedis:
  Zetemnes tarsalis P02
  Angarolarva aquatica P02
  Hydrobiites crassus Ponomarenko 1985 RJ93
  Cretotaenia S02
  Hydrophilopsia S02
  Rygmodus H82
    |--R. modestus T27
    `--R. tibialis Broun 1893 H82
  Andotypus MW15
  Sternolophus B70
    |--S. immariginatus PH10
    `--S. marginicollis B70

Anacaena Thomson 1859 [incl. Crenitulus Winters 1926, Crenophilus Agassiz 1859, Cryniphilus Motschulsky 1845, Metacymus Sharp 1882] VT01

Epimetopus Lacordaire 1854 [incl. Ceratoderus Mulsant 1851 non Westwood 1841, Sepidulum LeConte 1874; Epimetopidae, Epimetopinae] VT01

Hydrochus Leach 1817 [=Hydrochous Bedel 1881; incl. Amrishius Makhan 1998, Deepakius Makhan 1998, Kiransus Makhan 1994, Rishwanius Makhan 1998; Hydrochidae, Hydrochinae] VT01

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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Last updated: 13 December 2020.

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