Common cassinia Cassinia aculeata, copyright Melburnian.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Raoulia, Anaphalis, Ozothamnus, Rhodanthe, Podolepis, Angianthus, Craspedia, Gnaphalium, Helipterum, Helichrysum, Haastia.

The Gnaphalieae are the tribe of composite-flowered plants including the everlastings and related taxa. Heads are mostly heterogamous in members of the subtribes Athrixinae and Gnaphaliinae but homogamous-discoid in Angianthinae. Members of the Athrixinae have fewer outer female flowers in the heads than inner bisexual flowers with the former being mostly longer than the latter (Black & Robertson 1965). Everlastings such as species of Helichrysum and Helipterum have the flower-head surrounded by an involucre of several rows of papery bracts.

    |--Athrixinae BR65
    |    |--Podolepis M99
    |    `--Athrixia BR65
    |         |--A. athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |         |    |--A. a. var. athrixioides BR65
    |         |    `--A. a. var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |         `--A. croniniana BR65
    |--Angianthinae BR65
    |    |--Basedowia tenerrima [=Humea tenerrima von Mueller 1896; incl. B. helichrysoides Pritzel 1918] BR65
    |    |--Eriochlamys behrii BR65
    |    |--Gnaphalodes uliginosum BR65
    |    |--Cephalipterum drummondii BR65
    |    |--Angianthus BR65
    |    |--Craspedia M99
    |    |--Polycalymma stuartii M99 [=Myriocephalus stuartii BR65]
    |    |--Chthonocephalus BR65
    |    |    |--C. pseudevax BR65
    |    |    `--C. tomentellus KM08
    |    |--Myriocephalus BR65
    |    |    |--M. occidentalis GK00
    |    |    |--M. rhizocephalus [=Hyalolepis rhizocephala] BR65
    |    |    |    |--M. r. var. rhizocephala BR65
    |    |    |    `--M. r. var. pluriflorus BR65
    |    |    `--M. rudallii BR65
    |    |--Gnephosis BR65
    |    |    |--G. arachnoidea BR65
    |    |    |--G. cyathopappa M99
    |    |    |--G. eriocarpa BR65
    |    |    |--G. gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |    |--G. skirrophora [incl. G. codonopappa] BR65
    |    |    `--G. tenuissima KM08
    |    `--Calocephalus BR65
    |         |--C. aervoides KM08
    |         |--C. brownii BR65
    |         |--C. citreus BR65
    |         |--C. dittrichii BR65
    |         |--C. drummondii BR65
    |         |--C. francisii KM08
    |         |--C. lacteus BR65
    |         |--C. multiflorus (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |         `--C. sonderi BR65
    `--Gnaphaliinae BR65
         |--Stuartina muelleri Sond. 1852 BR65, C06 [incl. Gnephosis rotundifolia Diels 1904 BR65]
         |--Gnaphalium A61
         |--Cassinia Brown 1817 BR65
         |    |--C. aculeata BW97
         |    |--C. arcuata MM09
         |    |--C. complanata BR65
         |    |--C. denticulata H87
         |    |--C. laevis [=C. aculeata var. laevis Black 1918] BR65
         |    |--C. longifolia MM09
         |    |--C. quinquefaria MM09
         |    |--C. tenuifolia MM09
         |    `--C. trinerva BW97
         |--Helipterum BR65
         |--Helichrysum BR65
         |--Quinetia urvillei BR65
         |--Ixodia achilleoides BR65
         |--Podosperma Labillardière 1806 [incl. Podotheca Cassini 1822] BR65
         |    |--P. angustifolium [=Podotheca angustifolia] BR65
         |    `--‘Podotheca’ chrysantha RL05
         |--Rutidosis BR65
         |    |--R. helichrysoides M99
         |    `--R. multiflora (Nees von Esenbeck) Robinson 1911 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |--Toxanthus BR65
         |    |--T. muelleri BR65
         |    `--T. perpusillus BR65
         |--Waitzia Wendland 1808 BR65
         |    |--W. acuminata M99
         |    |--W. nitida GK00
         |    `--W. suaveolens RL05
         |--Humea BR65
         |    |--H. cassiniaeformis (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    |--H. pholidota (von Mueller) Black 1919 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    `--H. punctulata BR65
         |--Ixiolaena BR65
         |    |--I. brevicompta M99
         |    |--I. leptolepis BR65
         |    |--I. supina BR65
         |    |--I. tomentosa M99
         |    `--I. viscosa BR65
         |--Leptorhynchos BR65
         |    |--L. elongatus BR65
         |    |--L. medius [incl. L. elongatus var. peduncularis] BR65
         |    |--L. squamatus BR65
         |    |--L. tenuifolius BR65
         |    |--L. tetrachaetus (Schlechtendal) Black 1921 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    `--L. waitzia BR65
         |--Millotia Cassini 1829 BR65
         |    |--M. greevesii BR65
         |    |--M. kempei BR65
         |    |    |--M. k. var. kempei BR65
         |    |    `--M. k. var. helmsii [incl. Toxanthus whitei Black 1915] BR65
         |    |--M. myosotidifolia GK00
         |    `--M. tenuifolia BR65
         |--Haastia B93
         `--Pterygopappus lawrencei B93

Gnaphalieae incertae sedis:
  Raoulia BS97
  Anaphalis BS97
  Aliella BS97
  Apalochlamys spectabilis [=Cassinia spectabilis] BW97
  Mniodes BW98
  Raouliopsis BW98
  Leucogenes Beauverd 1910 BS97, A61
    |--L. grandiceps (Hooker) Beauverd 1910 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--L. leontopodium (Hooker) Beauverd 1910 (see below for synonymy) A61
  ×Leucoraoulia Allan 1939 A61
    |--‘Haastia’ × loganii Buchan. 1882 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--‘Helichrysum’ × pauciflorum Kirk 1895 (see below for synonymy) A61
  Phagnalon BS97
    |--P. graecum PT98
    |--P. nitidum DH98
    `--P. sinaicum DH98
  Pseudognaphalium (subg. Laphangium) luteoalbum BS97, B93 [=Gnaphalium luteo-album Linnaeus 1753 B93, A61]
    |--P. l. var. luteoalbum A61
    |--‘Gnaphalium’ l. var. compactum Kirk 1899 A61
    `--‘Gnaphalium’ l. var. incanum Rich. 1832 A61
  Ewartia Beauverd 1910 BS97, A61
    |--*E. catipes A61
    |--E. meredithiae BS97
    |--E. nubigena KC83
    |--E. planchonii BS97
    `--E. sinclairii (Hooker) Cheeseman 1925 [=Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) sinclairii Hooker 1864] A61
  Ozothamnus BS97
  Rhodanthe M99
  Chrysocephalum M99
    |--C. apiculatum M99
    `--C. semipapposum B00
  Lawrenalla davenportii M99
  Leucochrysum M99
    |--L. fitzgibbonii G04
    `--L. stipitatum M99

Athrixia athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Panaetia athrixioides Sonder & von Mueller 1852; incl. A. tenella Bentham 1866] BR65

Athrixia athrixioides var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 [=A. tenella var. horripes Black 1929] BR65

Calocephalus multiflorus [=Pachysurus multiflorus Turczaninow 1851; incl. P. platycephalus von Mueller 1863, Calocephalus platycephalus (von Mueller) Bentham 1866] BR65

Gnephosis gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Cyathopappus gnephosioides; incl. G. arachnoidea var. foliata] BR65

‘Haastia’ × loganii Buchan. 1882 [=Helichrysum loganii (Buchan.) Kirk 1899, Raoulia loganii (Buchan.) Cheeseman 1925; Leucogenes leontopodium × Raoulia rubra] A61

‘Helichrysum’ × pauciflorum Kirk 1895 [Leucogenes grandiceps × Raoulia bryoides; incl. R. gibbsii Cheeseman 1910, H. (Leucogenes) grahamii Petrie 1913] A61

Humea cassiniaeformis [=Haeckeria cassiniaeformis von Mueller 1855; incl. Humea cassiniacea von Mueller 1858] BR65

Humea pholidota (von Mueller) Black 1919 [=Ozothamnus pholidotus von Mueller 1861, Helichrysum pholidotum von Mueller 1866; incl. Humea squamata von Mueller 1880] BR65

Leptorhynchos tetrachaetus
(Schlechtendal) Black 1921 [=Doratolepis tetrachaeta Schlechtendal 1847; incl. L. pulchellus von Mueller 1858] BR65

Leucogenes grandiceps (Hooker) Beauverd 1910 [=Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) grandiceps Hooker 1864, Helichrysum grandiceps Kirk 1899] A61

Leucogenes leontopodium (Hooker) Beauverd 1910 [=Helichrysum leontopodium Hooker 1853; incl. Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) colensoi Hooker 1864] A61

Rutidosis multiflora (Nees von Esenbeck) Robinson 1911 [=Styloncerus multiflorus Nees von Esenbeck 1846-1847; incl. Pumilo argyrolepis Schlechtendal 1848, Rutidosis pumilo Bentham 1866] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B93] Breitwieser, I. 1993. Comparative leaf anatomy of New Zealand and Tasmanian Inuleae (Compositae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 183–209.

[BS97] Breitwieser, I., & F. B. Sampson. 1997. Pollen characteristics of New Zealand Gnaphalieae (Compositae) and their taxonomic significance. Grana 36: 80–95.

[BW97] Breitwieser, I., & J. M. Ward. 1997. Transfer of Cassinia leptophylla (Compositae) to Ozothamnus. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 125–128.

[BW98] Breitwieser, I., & J. M. Ward. 1998. Leaf anatomy of Raoulia Hook. f. (Compositae, Gnaphalieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 126: 217–235.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Last updated: 25 March 2020.

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