Paper daisy Helipterum roseum, from here.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Helichrysum.

The Gnaphalieae is the tribe of composite-flowered plants including the everlastings and related taxa. Everlastings such as species of Helichrysum and Helipterum have the flower-head surrounded by an involucre of several rows of papery bracts.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965, as Gnaphaliinae): Style-branches usually truncate or rounded at summit, stigmatic lines not confluent at summit, which when truncate is crowned by tuft of collecting hairs; styles of bisexual but sterile flowers obtuse, usually clavate; female outer flowers, when present, filiform, in one to many rows; inner involucral bracts often ending in radiating (stellately spreading) petaloid laminae; receptacle mostly naked.

<==Gnaphalieae [Gnaphaliinae]
    |--Stuartina muelleri [incl. Gnephosis rotundifolia Diels 1904] BR65
    |--Helichrysum BR65
    |--Quinetia urvillei BR65
    |--Ixodia achilleoides BR65
    |--Podosperma Labillardière 1806 [incl. Podotheca Cassini 1822] BR65
    |    |--P. angustifolium [=Podotheca angustifolia] BR65
    |    `--‘Podotheca’ chrysantha RL05
    |--Rutidosis BR65
    |    |--R. helichrysoides BR65
    |    `--R. multiflora (Nees von Esenbeck) Robinson 1911 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--Toxanthus BR65
    |    |--T. muelleri BR65
    |    `--T. perpusillus BR65
    |--Waitzia Wendland 1808 BR65
    |    |--W. acuminata BR65
    |    |--W. nitida GK00
    |    `--W. suaveolens RL05
    |--Humea BR65
    |    |--H. cassiniaeformis (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |--H. pholidota (von Mueller) Black 1919 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    `--H. punctulata BR65
    |--Ixiolaena BR65
    |    |--I. leptolepis BR65
    |    |--I. supina BR65
    |    |--I. tomentosa BR65
    |    `--I. viscosa BR65
    |--Millotia Cassini 1829 BR65
    |    |--M. greevesii BR65
    |    |--M. kempei BR65
    |    |    |--M. k. var. kempei BR65
    |    |    `--M. k. var. helmsii [incl. Toxanthus whitei Black 1915] BR65
    |    |--M. myosotidifolia GK00
    |    `--M. tenuifolia BR65
    |--Leptorhynchos BR65
    |    |--L. elongatus BR65
    |    |--L. medius [incl. L. elongatus var. peduncularis] BR65
    |    |--L. squamatus BR65
    |    |--L. tenuifolius BR65
    |    |--L. tetrachaetus (Schlechtendal) Black 1921 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    `--L. waitzia BR65
    |--Cassinia Brown 1817 BR65
    |    |--C. aculeata BR65
    |    |--C. albida CA27
    |    |--C. arcuata BR65
    |    |--C. complanata BR65
    |    |--C. fulvida CA27
    |    |    |--C. f. var. fulvida CA27
    |    |    |--C. f. var. linearis Kirk 1899 CA27
    |    |    `--C. f. var. montana Al27
    |    |--C. laevis [=C. aculeata var. laevis Black 1918] BR65
    |    |--C. leptophylla R85
    |    |--C. longifolia MM09
    |    |--C. quinquefaria GCC02
    |    |--C. retorta G60
    |    |--C. spectabilis BR65
    |    `--C. tenuifolia P82
    |--Gnaphalium BR65
    |    |--G. collinum An27
    |    |--G. domingense J87
    |    |--G. eggersii J87
    |    |--G. indicum [incl. G. multicaule] BR65
    |    |--G. indutum BR65
    |    |--G. japonicum BR65
    |    |--G. keriense An27
    |    |--G. luteo-album BR65
    |    |--G. lyallii CA27
    |    |--G. mackayi Al27
    |    |--G. multiceps MH98
    |    |--G. paludosum An27
    |    |--G. pensylvanicum ACW01
    |    |--G. polycaulon VB02
    |    |--G. pratense D03
    |    |--G. pulvinatum VB02
    |    |--G. purpureum J87
    |    |--G. selleanum J87
    |    |--G. serpyllifolium D03
    |    |--G. trinerve An27
    |    |--G. uliginosum C55a
    |    `--G. undulatum C55b
    `--Helipterum BR65
         |--H. albicans [=Elichrysum albicans Cunningham 1825; incl. E. incanum Hooker 1829, Helipterum incanum] BR65
         |--H. anthemoides BR65
         |--H. australe (Gray) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |--H. charsleyae BR65
         |--H. chlorocephalum (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |--H. corymbiflorum BR65
         |--H. cotula BR65
         |--H. demissum (Gray) Druce 1917 [=Pteropogon demissus Gray 1852; incl. H. exiguum von Mueller 1855] BR65
         |--H. fitzgibbonii BR65
         |--H. floribundum BR65
         |--H. haigii BR65
         |--H. humboldtianum BR65
         |--H. jessenii von Mueller 1890 BR65
         |--H. laeve BR65
         |--H. manglesii [=Rhodanthe manglesii] BR65
         |--H. microglossum (von Mueller) Tate 1883 [=H. corymbiflorum var. microglossum] BR65
         |--H. moschatum [=Gnaphalium moschatum Cunningham 1837; incl. Calocephalus gnaphalioides Hooker 1848] BR65
         |--H. oppositifolium Moore 1897 [incl. Griffithia helipteroides Black 1913] BR65
         |--H. polygalifolium BR65
         |--H. pterochaetum BR65
         |--H. pygmaeum BR65
         |    |--H. p. var. pygmaeum BR65
         |    `--H. p. var. occidentale BR65
         |--H. roseum [=Acroclinium roseum, Helichrysum roseum Baillon 1881 non Lawrencella rosea Lindley 1839] BR65
         |--H. stipitatum BR65
         |--H. strictum BR65
         |--H. sturtianum [=H. floribundum var. sturtianum] BR65
         |--H. tenellum BR65
         |--H. tietkensii BR65
         |--H. troedelii BR65
         |--H. uniflorum BR65
         `--H. variabile [=Hyalospermum variabile Sonder 1852; incl. He. hyalospermum von Mueller 1866] BR65

Helipterum australe (Gray) Druce 1917 [=Dimorpholepis australis Gray 1852; incl. H. dimorpholepis Bentham 1866] BR65

Helipterum chlorocephalum [incl. H. troedelii var. patens Ewart 1909, H. roseum var. patens (Ewart) Black 1921] BR65

Humea cassiniaeformis [=Haeckeria cassiniaeformis von Mueller 1855; incl. Humea cassiniacea von Mueller 1858] BR65

Humea pholidota (von Mueller) Black 1919 [=Ozothamnus pholidotus von Mueller 1861, Helichrysum pholidotum von Mueller 1866; incl. Humea squamata von Mueller 1880] BR65

Leptorhynchos tetrachaetus
(Schlechtendal) Black 1921 [=Doratolepis tetrachaeta Schlechtendal 1847; incl. L. pulchellus von Mueller 1858] BR65

Rutidosis multiflora (Nees von Esenbeck) Robinson 1911 [=Styloncerus multiflorus Nees von Esenbeck 1846-1847; incl. Pumilo argyrolepis Schlechtendal 1848, Rutidosis pumilo Bentham 1866] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GCC02] Grant, C. D., C. J. Campbell & N. R. Charnock. 2002. Selection of species suitable for derelict mine site rehabilitation in New South Wales, Australia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 139: 215-235.

[G60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

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