The king fern Marattia attenuata, from here.

Belongs within: Tracheophyta.
Contains: Ophioglossaceae, Leptosporangiatae, Equisetopsida.

The Monilophyta is the crown clade including ferns and related plants, whisk ferns (Psilotaceae) and horsetails (Equisetum). The clade is supported by molecular data, as well as possibly by the exclusively centrifugal development of the spore exine (Cantino et al. 2007). Recent analyses have agreed in placing a clade of Ophioglossaceae and Psilotaceae, with subterranean mycorrhizal gametophytes, sister to other monilophytes with surface-growing photosynthetic gametophytes.

<==Monilophyta (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Ophioglossaceae WP05
    |  `--Psilotaceae (see below for synonymy) CD07
    |       |--Psilotum WP05
    |       |    |--P. complanatum WP05
    |       |    `--P. nudum (Linnaeus) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 (see below for synonymy) SL05
    |       `--Tmesipteris WP05
    |            |--T. forsteri C45
    |            |--T. lanceolata WP05
    |            `--T. tannensis G60
    `--+--Apo-Leptosporangiatae [Filicales] CD07
       |    |  i. s.: Senftenbergia SS04
       |    |--Anachoropteris CD07
       |    |--Ankyropteris CD07
       |    |--Botryopteris CD07
       |    |--Psalixochlaena CD07
       |    |--Sermaya CD07
       |    |--Skaaripteris CD07
       |    `--Leptosporangiatae WP05
       `--+--+--Ibyka D98
          |  `--Equisetopsida WP05
          `--Marattiales [Marattiidae, Marattiophyta, Marattiopsida] CD07
               |  i. s.: Christensenia CD07
               |         Psaronius [incl. Stipitopteris] Z02
               |--Danaea Smith 1793 WP05, FT93
               |    `--D. elliptica WP05
               `--Marattiaceae SL05
                    |--Angiopteris SL05 [incl. Archangiopteris CD07]
                    |    |--A. crassipes Wallich ex Presl 1845 I88
                    |    |--A. evecta (Forster) Hoffmann 1796 [=Polypodium evectum Forster 1786] I88
                    |    `--A. salicifolia (Presl) de Vries 1853 [=Psilodochea salicifolia Presl 1845] I88
                    `--Marattia WP05
                         |--M. alata Swartz 1788 CD07
                         |--M. attenuata Labill. 1824 CD07
                         |--M. excavata L54
                         |--M. fraxinea Smith 1790 [incl. M. salicina Smith 1812] C49
                         `--M. laxa WP05

Monilophyta incertae sedis:
  Todites RY03
  Gleichenites BO02
  Aspleniopsis aplenioides (Holttum) Pichi-Sermolli 1977 (see below for synonymy) L03
  Coryphopteris squamipes H03
  Trichipteris borinquena SWK87
  Platycerium [Platyceriaceae] B06
    |--P. coronarium P88
    `--P. wallichii Hook. 1858 [incl. Acrostichum alcicorne Bedd. 1864] B06
  Lecanopteris carnosa P88
  Hymenophyllopsis [Hymenophyllopsidaceae] PS01
  Totedea superba C45
  Balmeisporites Cookson & Dettmann 1958 TMD02
    `--*B. holodictyus Cookson & Dettmann 1958 [incl. B. platydictyos Douglas 1973] TMD02
  Leptopteris A27
    |--L. hymenophylloides A27
    `--L. superba A27
  Paesia scaberula A27
  Todea barbara A27
  Loxsoma cunninghami A27
  Goniopteris S89
    |--G. helvetica S89
    |--G. polypodioides S89
    `--G. stiriaca S89
  Phegopteris spectabilis D03
  Stenochlaena [Stenochlaenaceae] B06
    `--S. palustris (Burm. f.) Under. 1906 (see below for synonymy) B06
  Arthropteris tenella G60
  Doodia G60
    |--D. caudata A27
    `--D. media G60

Nomina nuda: Lomaria deflexa Colenso 1845 C45
             L. deltoides Colenso 1845 C45
             L. heterophylla Colenso 1845 C45
             L. latifolia Colenso 1845 C45
             L. linearis Colenso 1845 C45
             L. nigra Colenso 1845 C45
             L. rotundifolia Colenso 1845 C45

Aspleniopsis aplenioides (Holttum) Pichi-Sermolli 1977 [=Rheopteris asplenioides Holttum 1962, Austrogramme asplenioides (Holttum) Hennipman 1975)] L03

Monilophyta [Filices, Filicinophyta, Filicophyta, Filicopsida, Moniliformopses, Ophioglossales, Polypodiophyta, Polypodiopsida, Pterophyta, Pteridopsida, Pteropsida]

Psilotaceae [Psilophytae, Psilopsida, Psilotales, Psiloteae, Psilotineae, Psilotophyta, Psilotophytina, Psilotopsida, Psilotidae] CD07

Psilotum nudum (Linnaeus) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 [=Lycopodium nudum Linnaeus 1753; incl. P. triquetrum Schwartz 1987] SL05

Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. f.) Under. 1906 [=Polypodium palustre Burm. f. 1768; incl. S. scandens (Sw.) Smith 1841] B06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707-737.

[B06] Biswas, A. 2006. Pteridophytes of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 175-188.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241-308.

[C49] Crookes, M. W. 1949. A revised and annotated list of New Zealand Filicinae. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 209-225.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567-599.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[G60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[L03] Lindsay, S. 2003. Considerations for a revision of the fern family Vittariaceae for Flora Malesiana. Telopea 10 (1): 99-112.

[L54] Lötschert, W. 1954. Beitrag zur Pteridophyten-Flora von Mittel-Amerika. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (1-2): 109-119.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[PS01] Pryer, K. M., A. R. Smith, J. S. Hunt & J. Y. Dubuisson. 2001. rbcL data reveal two monophyletic groups of filmy ferns (Filicopsida: Hymenophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany 88 (6): 1118-1130.

[RY03] Ren, D., & J. Yin. 2003. New ‘osmylid-like’ fossil Neuroptera from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111 (1): 1-11.

[SS04] Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallón & R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553-557.

[SL05] Small, R. L., E. B. Lickey, J. Shaw & W. D. Hauk. 2005. Amplification of noncoding chloroplast DNA for phylogenetic studies in lycophytes and monilophytes with a comparative example of relative phylogenetic utility from Ophioglossaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 509-522.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII. – Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 73-76.

[TMD02] Tosolini, A.-M. P., S. McLoughlin & A. N. Drinnan. 2002. Early Cretaceous megaspore assemblages from southeastern Australia. Cretaceous Research 23: 807-844.

[WP05] Wikström, N., & K. M. Pryer. 2005. Incongruence between primary sequence data and the distribution of a mitochondrial atp1 group II intron among ferns and horsetails. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 484-493.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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