Male fern Dryopteris filix-mas, photographed by JoJan.

Belongs within: Pteridales.

The Dryopteridaceae is a group of ferns with their highest diversity in tropical regions, though there are also a number of temperate species. The majority of species in the family are terrestrial, including the hard ferns of the genus Polystichum and the wood ferns of the genus Dryopteris.

See also: Focus on a fern (Taxon of the Week: Polystichum vestitum).

Characters (from Smith et al. 2006): Terrestrial, epipetric, hemiepiphytic, or epiphytic; rhizomes creeping, ascending or erect, sometimes scandent or climbing, with non-clathrate scales at apices; petioles with numerous round vascular bundles arranged in a ring; blades monomorphic, less often dimorphic, sometimes scaly or glandular, uncommonly hairy; veins pinnate or forking, free to variously anastomosing, with or without included veinlets; sori usually round, indusia round-reniform or peltate (lost in several lineages), or sori exindusiate, acrostichoid in a few lineages; sporangia with 3-rowed, short to long stalks; spores reniform, monolete, perine winged; x = 41, rarely 40.

    |--Lithostegia foeniculacea (Hooker) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |--Acrophorus stipellatus Moore 1854 [incl. Davallia nodosa (Presl) Hooker 1846, Leucostegia nodosa] I88
    |--Peranema cyathoides Don 1825 [incl. Sphaeropteris barbata Wallich ex Hope 1900] I88
    |--Diacalpe aspidioides Blume 1828 [=Peranema aspidioides (Blume) Mett. 1859] I88
    |    |--D. a. var. aspidioides I88
    |    `--D. a. var. hookeriana (Wallich) Ching & Wu in Wu 1983 I88
    |--Arachniodes I88
    |    |--A. amabilis (Blume) Tindale 1961 [=Aspidium amabile Blume 1828; incl. Lastrea amabilis] I88
    |    |--A. coniifolia (Moore) Ching 1962 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    `--A. spectabilis (Ching) Ching 1962 [=Rumohra spectabilis Ching 1934] I88
    |--Polystichum Roth. 1797 SL05, M03
    |    |--P. acanthophyllum (Franch.) Christ 1905 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. acrostichoides SL05
    |    |--P. atkinsonii Bedd. 1876 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. bakerianum (Atkins.) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. biaristatum (Blume) Moore 1858 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. cystostegium A27
    |    |--P. discretum (Don) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. duthiei (Hope) Christensen 1906 [=Aspidium duthiei Hope 1899] I88
    |    |--P. echinatum J87
    |    |--P. elegans D03
    |    |--P. kathmanduense Nakaike 1982 I88
    |    |--P. kodamae I88
    |    |--P. lachenense (Hooker) Bedd. 1865 [=Aspidium lachenense Hooker 1862] I88
    |    |--P. lentum (Don) Moore 1858 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. mohrioides (Bory) Pr. Tent. 1836 C49
    |    |--P. munitum C90
    |    |--P. muricatum L54
    |    |--P. neolobatum Nakai 1925 I88
    |    |--P. nepalense (Spr.) Christensen 1905 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |    |--P. n. var. nepalense I88
    |    |    `--P. n. var. subpinnatum Christensen 1931 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. nigropaleaceum (Christ) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. obliquum (Don) Moore 1858 [=Aspidium obliquum Don 1825, A. auriculatum var. caespitosa Clarke 1880] I88
    |    |--P. oculatum A27
    |    |--P. polystichiforme J87
    |    |--P. prescottianum (Wallich) Moore 1858 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. punctiferum Christensen 1931 I88
    |    |--P. rhizophyllum J87
    |    |--P. richardi A27
    |    |--P. semifertile (Clarke) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium aculeatum var. semifertile Clarke 1880] I88
    |    |--P. speciosum (Don) Smith 1841 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. squarrosum (Don) Fée 1852 [=Aspidium squarrosum Don 1825] I88
    |    |    |--P. s. var. squarrosum R02
    |    |    `--P. s. var. beddomei Manickam & Rajkumar 1999 R02
    |    |--P. stenophyllum Christ 1905 I88
    |    |--P. stimulans (Kunze) Bedd. 1865 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |    |--P. thomsonii (Hooker) Bedd. 1866 [=Aspidium thomsonii Hooker in Hooker 1860] I88
    |    `--P. vestitum A27
    |--Rumohra SS04
    |    |--*R. adiantiformis [=Polystichum adiantiforme Smith 1875] C49
    |    |--R. aristatum [=Polystichum aristatum (Forster) Presl 1836] C49
    |    `--R. hispida [=Polystichum hispidum (Swartz) Smith 1841 C49
    `--Dryopteris Adans. 1763 M03
         |--D. aculeata M03
         |--D. adiantiformis (Forster 1786) Kuntze [incl. Polypodium coriaceum Swartz 1788] M03
         |--D. angustifrons (Moore) Ktze. 1891 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. atrata (Wallich) Ching 1933 [=Aspidium atratum Wallich ex Kunze 1851] I88
         |--D. barbigera (Hooker) Ktze. 1981 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. blanfordii (Hope) Christensen 1905 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. carthusiana BO08
         |--D. chrysocoma (Christ) Christensen 1905 [=Aspidium chrysocomum Christ 1902] I88
         |--D. cochleata (Don) Christensen 1905 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. cordifolia A27
         |--D. cristata SS04
         |--D. denticulata J87
         |--D. dilatata BO08
         |--D. filix-mas BO08
         |--D. hendersonii (Bedd.) Christensen 1905 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. hispida A27
         |--D. inaequalis SS04
         |--D. juxtaposita Christ 1907 I88
         |--D. karwinskyana L54
         |--D. marginata (Hope) Christ 1907 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. mohrioides M03
         |--D. molle A27
         |--D. odontoloma (Moore) Christensen 1924 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. paleacea (Swartz) Christensen 1911 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. panda (Clarke) Christensen 1934 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. patula L54
         |--D. pulvinulifera (Bedd.) Ktze. 1891 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. pustulata A27
         |--D. scottii (Bedd.) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium scottii Bedd. 1870, Phegopteris scottii (Bedd.) Bedd. 1876] I88
         |--D. serrato-dentata (Bedd.) Hayata 1914 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. sino-fibrillosa Ching 1940 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. sparsa (Don) Ktze. 1891 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. splendens (Hooker) Ktze. 1891 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. squamiseta (Hooker) Ktze. 1891 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--D. subbarbigera Ching ex Ching & Wu in Wu 1983 I88
         |--D. unitum A27
         `--D. vestita M03

Arachniodes coniifolia (Moore) Ching 1962 [=Lastrea coniifolia Moore 1857, Aspidium coniifolium Wallich ex Mett. 1858 non Presl 1822, Rumohra wallichii Ching 1934; incl. A. cornu-cervi Hamilton ex Don 1825, A. mucronatum Hamilton ex Don 1825] I88

Dryopteris angustifrons (Moore) Ktze. 1891 [=Lastrea angustifrons Moore ex Bedd. 1867, Nephrodium angustifrons (Moore) Baker 1867] I88

Dryopteris barbigera (Hooker) Ktze. 1981 [=Nephrodium barbigerum Hooker 1862, Lastrea barbigera (Hooker) Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris blanfordii (Hope) Christensen 1905 [=Nephrodium blanfordii Hope 1899; incl. N. remotum Clarke 1880 non Hooker 1861, Lastrea spinulosa var. remota (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris cochleata (Don) Christensen 1905 [=Nephrodium cochleatum Don 1825, Lastrea filix-mas var. cochleata (Don) Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris hendersonii (Bedd.) Christensen 1905 [=Lastrea hendersonii Bedd. 1876; incl. Nephrodium spectabile Clarke 1880, L. spectabilis (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris marginata (Hope) Christ 1907 [=Nephrodium filix-mas var. marginatum Clarke 1880, N. marginatum (Wallich) Hope 1903] I88

Dryopteris odontoloma (Moore) Christensen 1924 [=Lastrea odontoloma Moore 1858, L. filix-mas var. odontoloma (Moore) Bedd. 1892, Nephrodium odontolomum (Moore) Hooker & Baker 1874] I88

Dryopteris paleacea (Swartz) Christensen 1911 [=Aspidium paleaceum Swartz 1806; incl. A. brunonianum Wallich ex Mett. 1858, Lastrea brunoniana, Nephrodium brunonianum (Wallich) Hooker 1862, N. filix-mas var. patentissima Clarke 1880, Lastrea filix-mas var. patentissima (Clarke) Bedd. 1883, N. parallelogramma var. patentissima (Clarke) Hope 1903, Dryopteris wallichiana] I88

Dryopteris panda (Clarke) Christensen 1934 [=Nephrodium filix-mas var. pandum Clarke 1880, Lastrea filix-mas var. panda (Clarke) Bedd. 1883, N. pandum (Clarke) Hope 1899] I88

Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd.) Ktze. 1891 [=Lastrea pulvinulifera Bedd. 1870, Nephrodium pulvinuliferum (Bedd.) Hooker & Baker 1874; incl. Dryopteris harae Ito 1966, N. sparsum var. squamulosum Clarke 1880, D. thelypteris var. squamulosa] I88

Dryopteris serrato-dentata (Bedd.) Hayata 1914 [=Lastrea filix-mas var. serrato-dentata Bedd. 1892, Nephrodium serrato-dentatum (Bedd.) Hope 1899] I88

Dryopteris sino-fibrillosa Ching 1940 [incl. Nephrodium filix-mas var. fibrillosum Clarke 1880, D. fibrillosa (Clarke) Hand.-Mzt. 1922 non Christensen 1905, Lastrea filix-mas f. fibrillosa (Clarke) Hope 1903, L. filix-mas var. parallelogramma subvar. fibrillosa (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris sparsa (Don) Ktze. 1891 [=Nephrodium sparsum Don 1825, Lastrea sparsa (Don) Moore 1858; incl. N. sparsum var. latisquamum Clarke 1880, L. sparsa var. nitidula Bedd. 1883, L. sparsa var. obtusissima Bedd. 1883] I88

Dryopteris splendens (Hooker) Ktze. 1891 [=Nephrodium splendens Hooker 1862, Lastrea splendens (Hooker) Bedd. 1865] I88

Dryopteris squamiseta (Hooker) Ktze. 1891 [=Nephrodium squamisetum Hooker 1862; incl. Lastrea buchanani (Baker) Bedd. 1883] I88

Lithostegia foeniculacea (Hooker) Ching 1933 [=Aspidium foeniculaceum Hooker 1862, Diacalpe foeniculacea (Hooker) Clarke 1880, Lastrea foeniculacea (Hooker) Bedd. 1865] I88

Polystichum acanthophyllum (Franch.) Christ 1905 [=Aspidium acanthophyllum Franch. 1885, P. aculeatum var. acanthophyllum (Franch.) Bedd. 1892] I88

Polystichum atkinsonii Bedd. 1876 [=Aspidium atkinsonii (Bedd.) Clarke 1880; incl. P. gracilipes var. gemmiferum] I88

Polystichum bakerianum (Atkins.) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 [=Aspidium prescottianum var. bakerianum Clarke 1880, A. bakerianum Atkins. ex Baker in Hooker 1886, Polystichum prescottianum var. bakerianum (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Polystichum biaristatum
(Blume) Moore 1858 [=Aspidium biaristatum Blume 1828, A. aculeatum var. biaristatum (Blume) Clarke 1880, Polystichum aculeatum var. biaristatum (Blume) Bedd. 1883] I88

Polystichum discretum (Don) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 [=Aspidium discretum Don 1825; incl. P. setosum Schott 1834, A. aculeatum var. setosum (Schott) Clarke 1880, A. setosum (Schott) Wallich ex Hope 1902, Polystichum aculeatum var. setosum (Schott) Bedd. 1883] I88

Polystichum lentum (Don) Moore 1858 [=Aspidium lentum Don 1825, A. auriculatum var. lentum (Don) Clarke 1880, Polystichum auriculatum var. lentum (Don) Bedd. 1883] I88

Polystichum nepalense
(Spr.) Christensen 1905 [=Aspidium nepalense Spr. 1827; incl. A. marginatum, Polystichum auriculatum var. marginatum (Wallich) Bedd. 1883] I88

Polystichum nepalense var. subpinnatum Christensen 1931 [incl. P. falcatipinnum, P. manmeiense (Christ) Nakaike 1982] I88

Polystichum nigropaleaceum (Christ) Diels in Engl. & Prantl 1899 [=P. aculeatum var. nigropaleaceum Christ 1893, P. setiferum var. nigropaleaceum (Christ) Sledge 1973; incl. P. piceopaleaceum] I88

Polystichum prescottianum (Wallich) Moore 1858 [=Aspidium prescottianum Wallich ex Mett. 1858; incl. P. moupinense (Franch.) Bedd. 1892] I88

Polystichum speciosum (Don) Smith 1841 [=Aspidium speciosum Don 1825, Arachniodes speciosa (Don) Ching 1962; incl. As. affine Wallich ex Mett. 1858 non Blume 1828, Lastrea affinis (Wallich) Bedd. 1883, Polystichum affine (Wallich) Presl 1836] I88

Polystichum stimulans (Kunze) Bedd. 1865 [=Aspidium stimulans Kunze ex Mett. 1858; incl. A. ilicifolium Don 1825, Polystichum ilicifolium (Don) Moore 1858 non Fée 1852] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111-121.

[C90] Crawford, R. L. 1990. Discovery of Caviphantes saxetorum in North America; status of Scironis tarsalis (Araneida, Linyphiidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 235-236.

[C49] Crookes, M. W. 1949. A revised and annotated list of New Zealand Filicinae. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 209-225.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[L54] Lötschert, W. 1954. Beitrag zur Pteridophyten-Flora von Mittel-Amerika. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (1-2): 109-119.

[M03] Macloskie, G. 1903. Pteridophyta, ferns and fernlike plants. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 127-138. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[R02] Rajkumar, S. D. 2002. Lectotypification of Polystichum squarrosum (D. Don) Fee var. beddomei Manickam & Rajkumar, family Dryopteridaceae. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 583.

[SS04] Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallón & R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553-557.

[SL05] Small, R. L., E. B. Lickey, J. Shaw & W. D. Hauk. 2005. Amplification of noncoding chloroplast DNA for phylogenetic studies in lycophytes and monilophytes with a comparative example of relative phylogenetic utility from Ophioglossaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 509-522.

Smith, A. R., K. M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider & P. G. Wolf. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55 (3): 705-731.

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