Climbing hempvine Mikania scandens, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Senecio, Othonninae, Calenduleae, Gnaphalieae, Astereae, Anthemideae, Inuleae, Plucheeae, Helenieae, Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Eupatorium.

The Asteroideae is a major clade within the composite-flowered plants, a major characteristic of which is the presence of true ray florets in many species. Around 3000 species within the Asteroideae are placed in the tribe Senecioneae, characterised by a well-developed pappus of simple or plumose hairs, and flattened, more or less truncate style-arms (Allan 1961).

Synapomorphies (from Sesquiterpene lactones at biogenetic levels 3 and 4, benzopyrans, benzofurans present; ray florets common, female, disc florets with corolla shallowly lobed, perfect; anthers often ecalcarate and usually ecaudate; pollen 25.0-34.3 µm in diameter, colpus ends acute, exine 2.3-4.2 µm across, with a double tectum; style hairs often rounded, only more or less at style tip, stigmatic areas in two marginal bands; n = (4-)9-10(-19); rbcL 6bp x 4 inversion.

<==Asteroideae [Helianthoideae, Inuloideae]
    |  i. s.: Psilostrophe tagetina KJ94, BTA75
    |--Senecioneae [Senecionideae] PF02
    |    |  i. s.: Blennosperma T00
    |    |         Crassocephalum H03
    |    |           |--C. coeruleum CV06
    |    |           `--C. crepidioides MH98
    |    |         Erechtites Raf. 1817 A61
    |    |           |--E. diversifolia Petrie 1887 [incl. Senecio dunedinensis Belcher 1956] A61
    |    |           |--E. hieracifolia MH98
    |    |           |--E. kermadecensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 [=Senecio kermadecensis Belcher 1956] A61
    |    |           |--E. sonchoides DC. 1838 A61
    |    |           |--E. valerianaefolia A61
    |    |           `--E. wairauensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |                |--E. w. var. wairauensis A61
    |    |                `--E. w. var. robusta Allan 1961 A61
    |    |         Traversia Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |           `--*T. baccharoides Hooker 1864 [incl. Senecio geminatus Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |         Brachyglottis Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |    |           |--*B. repanda Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. repanda A61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. arborescens (Oliver) Allan 1961 [=B. arborescens Oliver 1948] A61
    |    |           |    `--B. r. var. rangiora (Buchan.) Allan 1961 [=B. rangiora Buchan. 1882] A61
    |    |           |--B. adamsii W91
    |    |           |--B. belidioides W91
    |    |           |    |--B. b. var. bellidioides W91
    |    |           |    `--B. b. var. crassa W91
    |    |           `--B. buchanani W91
    |    |         Melalema S06
    |    |         Culcitium S06
    |    |--Senecio BR65
    |    `--Othonninae BR65
    `--+--+--Calenduleae PF02
       |  `--+--Gnaphalieae PF02
       |     `--+--Astereae PF02
       |        `--Anthemideae PF02
       `--+--+--Inuleae PF02
          |  `--Plucheeae PF02
          `--+--Athroismeae PF02
             |    |--Athroisma de Candolle 1883 PF02
             |    |--Blepharispermum PF02
             |    `--Leucoblepharis PF02
             `--+--Helenieae PF02
                `--+--Coreopsideae PF02
                   `--+--+--+--Tagetes TS03 [Tageteae PF02]
                      |  |  |    `--T. minuta B00
                      |  |  `--+--Bahieae PF02
                      |  |     `--Chaenactideae PF02
                      |  `--Neurolaeneae PF02
                      |       |--Neurolaena lobata J87
                      |       `--Calea N10
                      |           |--C. dalyi G09
                      |           `--C. pinifolia Forster 1786 (n. d.) A61
                      `--+--Polymnia Linnaeus 1751 [Polymnieae, Polymniinae] PF02
                         |    `--P. pyramidalis OB11
                         `--+--Heliantheae PF02
                            `--+--Milleria YY22 [Millerieae PF02]
                               `--+--Madia D51 [Madieae PF02]
                                  |    |--M. citrigracilis D51
                                  |    |--M. citriodora D51
                                  |    `--M. sativa D51
                                  `--+--Perityleae PF02
                                     `--Eupatorieae [Eupatoriaceae] PF02
                                          |--Eupatorium GJ09
                                          |--Ophryosporus N10
                                          |--Gymnocoronis S06
                                          |--Adenostemma lavenia S06, LK14
                                          |--Alomia [incl. Lycapsus] S06
                                          |--Stevia S06
                                          |--Kanimia S06
                                          |--Brickellia N10
                                          |    |--B. argyrolepsis MM96
                                          |    `--B. californica BT72
                                          |--Chromolaena GJ09
                                          |    |--C. odorata GJ09
                                          |    `--C. squalida W03
                                          |--Ageratum C06
                                          |    |--A. conyzoides MM96
                                          |    `--A. houstonianum M65
                                          |--Ageratina N10
                                          |    |--A. adenophora H06
                                          |    |--A. altissima N10
                                          |    `--A. riparia H06
                                          `--Mikania [incl. Willoughbya] S06
                                               |--M. batatifolia M83
                                               |--M. cordata W03
                                               |--M. cyanosma J87
                                               |--M. dissecta J87
                                               |--M. hotteana J87
                                               |--M. micrantha W03
                                               |--M. rhomboidea J87
                                               |--M. scandens MM96
                                               `--M. tripartita J87

*Brachyglottis repanda Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. Cineraria repanda Forster 1786; incl. Senecio (Brachyglottis) forsteri Hooker 1853, S. georgii Endl. 1836] A61

Erechtites wairauensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 [=Senecio wairauensis Belcher 1956; incl. E. glabrescens Kirk 1877 non DC. 1838, E. prenanthoides var. minor Hooker 1853] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

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[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

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[G09] Goyder, D. J. 2009. Blepharodon crabronum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the pre-Cambrian serranias of eastern Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 179–181.

[H03] Hancock, D. L. 2003. The status and relationships of Terpnodesma Munro and establishment of the new tribe Axiothaumini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Tephritinae). African Entomology 11 (1): 143–145.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

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[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 27 June 2018.

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