Hemp-agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum, photographed by dnnya17.

Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Senecio, Gnaphalieae, Astereae, Anthemideae, Calenduleae, Inuleae, Plucheeae, Heliantheae.

The Asteroideae is a major clade within the composite-flowered plants, a major characteristic of which is the presence of true ray florets in many species.

Synapomorphies (from Sesquiterpene lactones at biogenetic levels 3 and 4, benzopyrans, benzofurans present; ray florets common, female, disc florets with corolla shallowly lobed, perfect; anthers often ecalcarate and usually ecaudate; pollen 25.0-34.3 µm in diameter, colpus ends acute, exine 2.3-4.2 µm across, with a double tectum; style hairs often rounded, only more or less at style tip, stigmatic areas in two marginal bands; n = (4-)9-10(-19); rbcL 6bp x 4 inversion.

    |  i. s.: Smallanthus PF02
    |--Senecioneae PF02
    |    |  i. s.: Blennosperma T00
    |    |         Crassocephalum H03
    |    |           |--C. coeruleum CV06
    |    |           `--C. crepidioides MH98
    |    |--Senecio BR65
    |    `--Othonninae BR65
    |         |--Euryops BR65
    |         |    |--E. abrotanifolius [=Othonna abrotanifolia] BR65
    |         |    |--E. mucosus CV06
    |         |    `--E. walterorum CV06
    |         `--Othonna CV06
    |              |--O. brandbergensis CV06
    |              |--O. clavifolia CV06
    |              |--O. graveolens CV06
    |              `--O. sparsiflora CV06
    `--+--+--+--Gnaphalieae PF02
       |  |  `--+--Astereae PF02
       |  |     `--Anthemideae PF02
       |  `--Calenduleae PF02
       `--+--+--Inuleae PF02
          |  `--Plucheeae PF02
          `--+--Athroismeae PF02
             |    |--Athroisma de Candolle 1883 PF02
             |    |--Blepharispermum PF02
             |    `--Leucoblepharis PF02
             `--+--Helenieae PF02
                |    |--Helenium YY22
                |    `--Flaveria australasica BR65
                `--+--Coreopsideae [Coreopsidinae] PF02
                   |    |--Coreopsis lanceolata H06
                   |    |--Glossogyne tenuifolia BR65
                   |    `--Bidens BR65
                   |         |--B. alba ACW01
                   |         |--B. bipinnata C55b
                   |         |--B. biternata PP07
                   |         |--B. cernua C55a
                   |         |--B. frondosa MH98
                   |         |--B. hendersonensis SJP60
                   |         |    |--B. h. var. hendersonensis SJP60
                   |         |    `--B. h. var. oenoensis SJP60
                   |         |--B. leucantha C55b
                   |         |--B. pilosa BR65
                   |         `--B. tripartita C55a
                   `--+--+--Neurolaena J87 [Neurolaeneae PF02]
                      |  |    `--N. lobata J87
                      |  `--+--Tagetes TS03 [Tageteae PF02]
                      |     `--+--Bahieae PF02
                      |        `--Chaenactideae PF02
                      `--+--Polymnia Linnaeus 1751 [Polymnieae, Polymniinae] PF02
                         `--+--Heliantheae PF02
                            `--+--Milleria YY22 [Millerieae PF02]
                               `--+--Madia D51 [Madieae PF02]
                                  |    |--M. citrigracilis D51
                                  |    |--M. citriodora D51
                                  |    `--M. sativa D51
                                  `--+--Perityleae PF02
                                     `--Eupatorium T03 [Eupatorieae PF02]
                                          |--E. adenophorum P82
                                          |--E. cabaionum J87
                                          |--E. cannabinum LDB98
                                          |--E. capillifolium ACW01
                                          |--E. flavidulum J87
                                          |--E. glehni T03
                                          |--E. illitum J87
                                          |--E. microchaetum J87
                                          |--E. nervosum J87
                                          |--E. odoratum G01
                                          |--E. porphyrocladium J87
                                          |--E. puberulum J87
                                          |--E. rugosum EBS98
                                          |--E. selleanum J87
                                          |--E. stigmaticum J87
                                          `--E. urbanii J87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H03] Hancock, D. L. 2003. The status and relationships of Terpnodesma Munro and establishment of the new tribe Axiothaumini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Tephritinae). African Entomology 11 (1): 143-145.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LDB98] Lenssen, J. P. M., G. E. ten Dolle & C. W. P. M. Blom. 1998. The effect of flooding on the recruitment of reed marsh and tall forb plant species. Plant Ecology 139: 13-23.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[SJP60] St. John, H. & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401-403.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[TS03] Tremetsberger, K., T. F. Stuessy, Y.-P. Guo, C. M. Baeza, H. Weiss & R. M. Samuel. 2003. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation within and among populations of Hypochaeris acaulis (Asteraceae) of Andean southern South America. Taxon 52: 237-245.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5-24.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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