Senecio

Senecio greyii, from here.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

Senecio, the groundsels, is a large genus of composite-flowered plants found worldwide. Some species are significant as invasive pasture weeds, such as the toxic ragwort S. jacobaea. The fireweed S. madagascariensis, native to Africa, is potentially a serious pasture weed in Australia, but control has been complicated by taxonomic confusion between S. madagascariensis and native Australian species of the S. lautus complex (Scott et al. 1998).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs with alternate leaves; heads usually in terminal corymbs. Involucre cylindrical or rarely campanulate, of equal bracts in one row, usually with a few small ones at base; receptacle naked; disc-flowers tubular, bisexual, five-toothed; ray-flowers either female ligulate in one row, or female filiform, with very reduced ligules, in two to three rows, or all flowers tubular, discoid; achenes terete and striate; pappus of numerous white capillary silky caducous bristles.

<==Senecio [Senecioninae]
    |--*S. vulgaris LM98
    |--S. acanthifolius D03
    |--S. albopurpureus O88
    |--S. andersoni D03
    |--S. anethifolius BR65
    |--S. argenteus D03
    |--S. australis Willdenow 1803 BR65
    |--S. banksii A27
    |--S. behrianus BR65
    |--S. bellidioides A27
    |--S. bidwillii T27
    |--S. biligulatus O88
    |--S. brachyglossus BR65
    |    |--S. b. var. brachyglossus BR65
    |    `--S. b. var. major BR65
    |--S. buchii J87
    |--S. burchellii SCP98
    |--S. cambrensis RS98
    |--S. candolleanus O88
    |--S. canescens R96
    |--S. carnosulus LM98
    |--S. chilensis D03
    |--S. chionaspis MM96
    |--S. chrysanthemoides O88
    |--S. constanzae J87
    |--S. cruentus MH98
    |--S. cunninghamii BR65
    |--S. cymosus D03
    |--S. danyausii D03
    |--S. diversifolius O88
    |--S. dryadeus Sieb. 1826 [incl. S. australis Richard 1832 non Willdenow 1803] BR65
    |--S. elaeagnifolius CA27
    |--S. elegans BR65
    |--S. engleranus CV06
    |--S. georgianus BR65
    |    |--S. g. var. georgianus BR65
    |    `--S. g. var. latifolius BR65
    |--S. giessii CV06
    |--S. glaucophyllus W27
    |    |--S. g. ssp. glaucophyllus LM98
    |    `--S. g. ssp. basinudus LM98
    |--S. glomeratus GK00
    |--S. glossanthus G04
    |--S. graciliflorus O88
    |--S. gregorii BR65
    |--S. greyii W27
    |--S. harveianus SCP98
    |--S. hectori A27
    |--S. hermannii CV06
    |--S. hispidulus [=Erechtites hispidula] BR65
    |--S. hotteanus J87
    |--S. hypoleucus [incl. S. odoratus var. petiolatus] BR65
    |--S. inaequidens BO08
    |--S. incanus C55a
    |--S. jacobaea BR65
    |--S. kirkii A27
    |--S. kunthianus O88
    |--S. lagopus W27
    |--S. lautus Forst. f. ex Willd. 1804 A69
    |    |  i. s.: S. l. var. pilosus BR65
    |    |--S. l. ssp. lautus A69
    |    |--S. l. ssp. alpinus Ali 1969 A69
    |    |--S. l. ssp. dissectifolius Ali 1969 (see below for synonymy) A69
    |    |--S. l. ssp. lanceolatus (Benth.) Ali 1969 [=S. lautus var. lanceolatus Benth. 1866] A69
    |    `--S. l. ssp. maritimus Ali 1969 [incl. S. spathulatus Rich. 1834] A69
    |--S. lyallii T27
    |--S. madagascariensis SCP98
    |--S. magnificus BR65
    |--S. marotiri LM98
    |--S. megaglossus BR65
    |--S. megaphyllum MM96
    |--S. mikanioides [incl. S. scandens] BR65
    |--S. minimus Poir 1817 BR65 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. mixta BR65
    |--S. monroi A27
    |--S. multicaulis Richard 1834 [incl. S. argutus Richard 1832, Erechtites arguta] BR65
    |    |--S. m. var. multicaulis BR65
    |    |--S. m. var. dissecta BR65
    |    `--S. m. var. microcephala BR65
    |--S. odoratus BR65
    |    |--S. o. var. odoratus BR65
    |    `--S. o. var. obtusifolius BR65
    |--S. orarius BR65
    |--S. otites B06
    |--S. palustris C55a
    |--S. patagonicus SB06
    |--S. pellucidus SCP98
    |--S. perdicioides A27
    |--S. picardae J87
    |--S. platylepis BR65
    |--S. praecox B06
    |--S. pterophorus BR65
    |    |--S. p. var. pterophorus BR65
    |    |--S. p. var. apterus BR65
    |    `--S. p. var. verus BR65
    |--S. puffinii G60
    |--S. purpuratus D03
    |--S. quadridentatus [=Erechtites quadridentata] BR65
    |--S. ramosus O88
    |--S. repangae de Lange & Murray 1998 LM98
    |    |--S. r. ssp. repangae LM98
    |    `--S. r. ssp. pokohinuensis de Lange & Murray 1998 LM98
    |--S. rotundifolius CA27
    |    |--S. r. var. rotundifolius CA27
    |    `--S. r. var. ambiguus Cheeseman 1925 CA27
    |--S. runcinifolius Willis 1952 [incl. Erechtites picridoides Sonder & von Mueller 1852 non Turczaninow 1851] BR65
    |--S. salignus MM96
    |--S. sarracenicus C55b
    |--S. saxifragoides W27
    |--S. scaberulus LM98
    |--S. sciadophilus A27
    |--S. scorzonerioides A27
    |--S. skirrhodon SCP98
    |--S. smithii D03
    |--S. squalidus RS98 [incl. S. chrysanthemifolius C55b]
    |--S. stenodon J87
    |--S. sterquilinus LM98
    |--S. stewartiae A27
    |--S. topkegolensis O88
    |--S. trifurcatus D03
    |--S. trineurus J87
    |--S. triodon D03
    |--S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. 1800 PL04
    `--S. windhoekensis CV06

Nomen nudum: Senecio dusenii Hoffm. in Dusén 1903 D03

Senecio lautus ssp. dissectifolius Ali 1969 [incl. S. capillifolius Hook. f. in Hook. 1847, S. carnulentus DC. 1837, S. crithmifolius Rich. 1834, S. endlicheri DC. 1837, S. neglectus Rich. 1832, S. pinnatifolius Rich. 1834] A69

Senecio minimus Poir 1817 BR65 [incl. Erechtites picridoides Turczaninow 1851 BR65, S. picridioides GK00, S. prenanthoides Richard 1834 BR65, E. prenanthoides BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A69] Ali, S. I. 1969. Senecio lautus complex in Australia V. Taxonomic interpretations. Australian Journal of Botany 17: 161-176.

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[B06] Berzosa, J. 2006. Some new Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny in the Senckenberg collection, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 55-74.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111-121.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of New Zealand shag colonies. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 363-380.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LM98] Lange, P. J. de, & B. G. Murray. 1998. Senecio repangae (Asteraceae): a new endemic species from the north-eastern North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 509-519.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467-501.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[SB06] Sarno, R. J., M. S. Bank, H. S. Stern & W. L. Franklin. 2006. Effects of age, sex, season, and social dynamics on juvenile guanaco subordinate behavior. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 41-47.

[SCP98] Scott, L. J., B. C. Congdon & J. Playford. 1998. Molecular evidence that fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis, Asteraceae) is of South African origin. Plant Systematics and Evolution 213: 251-257.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

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