Blue potato bush Lycianthes rantonnei, copyright Paul Venter.

Belongs within: Solanaceae.
Contains: Hyoscyameae, Lycium, Datureae, Solanum, Physaleae.

The Solanoideae is a clade within the Solanaceae characterised by the production of fleshy fruits with flattened seeds containing curved embryos (Olmstead et al. 2008). The derived succulent genus Nolana, sometimes recognised as a separate family from Solanaceae, is shown by molecular analysis to be positioned within the Solanoideae as part of a clade Atropina. Species of Nolana are native to coastal deserts of western South America and possess fruits comprised of five or more carpels with individual ovules intruding into the ovary wall to give rise to a series of single-seeded mericarps. Also belonging to the Atropina is the primarily Argentine genus Sclerophylax which bears dry, indehiscent fruits containing one or a few seeds.

Other notable members of the Solanoideae include the genus Capsicum, bell peppers and chilis, of which various species are grown for their hot-flavoured fruit. The tomato Lycopersicon esculentum is also widely cultivated for its edible fruit which form an integral part of many cuisines around the world. The tree tomato or tamarillo Cyphomandra betacea is a small tree producing reddish, egg-shaped fruits that is primarily grown in subtropical regions. All three of these last examples originated in South America.

Mandragora, the mandrakes, is a Eurasian genus of perennial herbs noted for their toxicity, leading to the folkloric belief in Europe that a mandrake's root could produce a fatal scream when pulled from the ground. Lycianthes is a genus of shrubs, vines and herbs found in South America and Asia of which the blue potato bush L. rantonnei is widely grown as an ornamental.

    |--Atropina OB08
    |    |--Latua pubiflora OB08
    |    |--Hyoscyameae OB08
    |    |--Jaborosa [incl. Trechonaetes] OB08
    |    |    |--J. integrifolia OB08
    |    |    `--+--J. sativa OB08
    |    |       `--J. squarrosa OB08
    |    `--+--Lycium OB08
    |       |--Sclerophylax [Sclerophylacaceae, Sclerophylacoideae] OB08
    |       |    |--S. adnatifolia OB08
    |       |    `--S. giliesii OB08
    |       `--Nolana [Nolanaceae] OB08
    |            |  i. s.: N. alba P05
    |            |--N. spathulata OB08
    |            `--+--N. linearifolia OB08
    |               `--N. paradoxa OB08
    `--+--Exodeconus miersii OB08
       `--+--Nicandra physalodes OB08
          `--+--+--Schultesianthus OB08
             |  |    |--S. leucanthus OB08
             |  |    `--S. megalandrus OB08
             |  `--+--Solandra OB08
             |     |    |--S. brachycalyx OB08
             |     |    `--S. grandiflora OB08
             |     `--Juanulloeae OB08
             |          |--Dyssochroma viridiflora OB08
             |          `--+--Juanulloa mexicana OB08
             |             |--Merinthopodium neuranthum OB08
             |             `--Markea [incl. Hawkesiophyton] OB08
             |                  |--M. panamensis OB08
             |                  `--M. ulei OB08
             `--+--Mandragora OB08
                |    |--M. autumnalis PT98
                |    |--M. caulescens O88
                |    `--M. officinarum OB08
                `--+--Datureae OB08
                   `--+--Solaneae OB08
                      |    |--Solanum A61
                      |    |--Cyphomandra betacea OB08, Z02
                      |    |--Triguera OB08
                      |    |--Jaltomata OB08
                      |    |    |--+--J. auriculata OB08
                      |    |    |  `--J. sinuosa OB08
                      |    |    `--+--J. grandiflora OB08
                      |    |       `--J. procumbens OB08
                      |    `--Lycopersicon OB08
                      |         |--L. cheesmanii W92
                      |         |--L. chilense W92
                      |         |--L. chmielewskii W92
                      |         |--L. esculentum M99
                      |         |--L. hirsutum W92
                      |         |--L. parviflorum W92
                      |         |--L. pennellii W92
                      |         |--L. peruvianum A02
                      |         `--L. pimpinellifolium RS98
                      `--+--Physaleae OB08
                         |--Salpichroina OB08
                         |    |--Nectouxia formosa OB08
                         |    `--Salpichroa BR65
                         |         |--S. diffusa HH03
                         |         `--S. origanifolia HH03 [incl. Atropa rhomboidea BR65, S. rhomboidea H93]
                         `--Lycianthes [Capsiceae] OB08
                              |  i. s.: *L. lycioides OB08
                              |         L. sanctaclarae MM96
                              |--+--L. rantonnei OB08
                              |  `--+--L. inaequilatera OB08
                              |     `--+--L. ciliolata OB08
                              |        `--L. peduncularis OB08
                              `--+--+--L. biflora OB08
                                 |  |--L. shanesii OB08
                                 |  `--+--L. heteroclita OB08
                                 |     `--+--L. glandulosa OB08
                                 |        `--L. multiflora OB08
                                 `--Capsicum OB08
                                      |  i. s.: C. annuum M99
                                      |         C. frutescens M99
                                      |--C. rhomboideum OB08
                                      `--+--C. baccatum OB08
                                         |--C. chinense OB08
                                         |--C. minutiflorum OB08
                                         `--C. pubescens OB08

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[A02] Atkinson, H. J. 2002. Molecular approaches to novel crop resistance against nematodes. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 569–598. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[HH03] Hern├índez, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

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[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OB08] Olmstead, R. G., L. Bohs, H. A. Migid, E. Santiago-Valentin, V. F. Garcia & S. M. Collier. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of the Solanaceae. Taxon 57 (4): 1159–1181.

[P05] Packer, L. 2005. A new species of Geodiscelis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Xeromelissinae) from the Atacama Desert of Chile. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 84–91.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

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[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

Last updated: 3 April 2020.

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