Salal Gaultheria shallon, photographed by Mrs W. D. Bransford.

Belongs within: Vaccinioideae.

The Gaultherieae is a clade of plants in the Ericaceae containing the wintergreens (Gaultheria) and related species. The clade as a whole is not strongly supported, but a derived subgroup including Tepuia, Diplycosia, Pernettya and Gaultheria includes many species producing the fragrant compound methyl salicylate (Kron et al. 2002). Oil of wintergreen is used as a flavouring in products such as toothpaste and mouthwash. The type genus, Gaultheria, is characterised by having fruit surrounded by a persistent fleshy calyx, and stamens with flattened filaments and awned anthers (D. K. Trock).

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs, rarely lianas. Leaves evergreen or deciduous, entire, serrulate, or serrate, non-ericoid, convolute in bud. Leaf epidermal cells not lignified. Indumentum of multicellular, multiseriate glandular and non-glandular hairs. Inflorescence usually axillary, rarely terminal, racemose, paniculate, or fasciculate, occasionally reduced to a solitary flower; bracts present, bracteoles usually paired, variable in position; calyx articulated with pedicel. Flowers usually pentamerous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes small to enlarged, often fleshy and colourful in fruit, persistent; corolla sympetalous, usually urceolate to tubular, lobes small. Stamens usually ten, filaments more or less straight, unicellular-pubescent, roughened, or smooth, lacking projections, or with four minute to conspicuous awns arising from dorso-apical portion of anther; anthers slightly to definitely roughened, occasionally with tubules, with or without a white deposit of disintegration tissue dorsally, dehiscing by terminal pores. Ovary usually pentalocular, with axile placentation, superior, rarely half inferior; style impressed; stigma more or less truncate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent berry, often associated with fleshy calyx; seeds usually with more or less isodiametric testa cells; embryo with two cotyledons.

    |--Leucothoe KJ02
    |    |--L. fontanesiana KJ02
    |    |--L. griffithiana P05
    |    `--L. profensis JD05
    `--+--+--Chamaedaphne calyculata KJ02
       |  `--Eubotrys racemosa KJ02
       `--+--Tepuia KJ02
          |    |--T. cardonae KJ02
          |    `--T. tatei KJ02
          `--+--Diplycosia KJ02
             |    |--D. acuminata KJ02
             |    |--D. kinabaluensis H03
             |    |--D. microsalicifolia H03
             |    `--D. pinifolia H03
             `--+--Pernettya KJ02
                |    |--P. alpina W91
                |    |--P. coriacea MM96
                |    |--P. furens D03
                |    |--P. leucocarpa D03
                |    |--P. mucronata CL85
                |    |--P. pentlandii H30
                |    `--P. tasmanica KJ02
                `--Gaultheria KJ02
                     |--G. antipoda H30
                     |--G. brevistipes (Wu & Hsu) Fang 1999 (see below for synonymy) P05
                     |--G. cardiosepala KJ02
                     |--G. colensoi RL96
                     |--G. crassa W91
                     |--G. depressa W91
                     |    |--G. d. var. depressa RL96
                     |    `--G. d. var. novae-zelandiae RL96
                     |--G. domingensis J87
                     |--G. eriophylla KJ02
                     |--G. fagifolia H30
                     |--G. fragrantissima P05
                     |    |--G. f. var. fragrantissima PS06
                     |    `--G. f. var. obovata Panda & Sanjappa 2006 PS06
                     |--G. hispida KJ02
                     |--G. howellii [=Pernettya howellii] H03
                     |--G. lanceolata H30
                     |--G. leucocarpa H03
                     |--G. miqueliana KJ02
                     |--G. mundula H03
                     |--G. notabilis H03
                     |--G. novaguineensis H03
                     |--G. nummularioides H03
                     |--G. oppositifolia H30
                     |--G. pernettyoides H03
                     |--G. perplexa H30
                     |--G. procumbens JK80
                     |--G. pullei H03
                     |--G. pyroliifolia PS06
                     |--G. rupestris H30
                     |--G. seshagiriana P05
                     |--G. shallon KJ02
                     `--G. trichophylla O88
                          |--G. t. var. trichophylla PS06
                          |--G. t. var. eciliata PS06
                          `--G. t. var. ovata Panda & Sanjappa 2006 PS06

Gaultheria brevistipes (Wu & Hsu) Fang 1999 [=Leucothoe brevistipes Wu & Hsu 1985, L. griffithiana var. sessilifolia Wu & Hsu 1986] P05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311-319.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H30] Hill, A. W. 1930. Hybridization in the New Zealand flora, with special reference to Gaultheria. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 34-36.

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335-423.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[P05] Panda, S. 2005. Gaultheria brevistipes (C.Y. Wu & T.Z. Hsu) R.C. Fang (Ericaceae)—a new record for India from Talle Valley, Arunachal Pradesh. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 177-182.

[PS06] Panda, S. & M. Sanjappa. 2006. Three new taxa of Ericaceae from India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 157-164.

[RL96] Rogers, G. M. & J. R. Leathwick. 1996. North Island seral tussock grasslands. 3. The influence of heather (Calluna vulgaris) on rates of change from tussock grassland to shrubland. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 473-487.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317-330.

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