Chinese lantern tree Hernandia nymphaeifolia, photographed by Tau'olunga.

Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Lauraceae.

The Laurales is a clade of flowering plants with perigynous flowers, with the carpel(s) often deeply embedded in a fleshy receptacle that may or may not become woody in fruit. Many species also have uniovulate carpels, unilacunar nodes, opposite leaves, and/or inaperturate pollen, though these characters vary within the clade and are also found in taxa outside the clade (Renner 1999). Most species are shrubs and trees, except for some lianas in the Hernandiaceae and Monimiaceae, and the parasitic vine genus Cassytha in the Lauraceae. The Monimiaceae are found in tropical and subtropical regions, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, with the highest diversity in New Guinea.

<==Laurales [Laurineae]
    |--Calycanthaceae SR07
    |    |--Idiospermum DS04 [Idiospermoideae T00]
    |    |    `--I. australiense DS04
    |    `--Calycanthoideae T00
    |         |--Calycanthus occidentalis DS04
    |         |--Chimonanthus praecox T00, DS04 [incl. C. fragrans LO98]
    |         `--Sinocalycanthus T00
    `--+--Atherosperma DS04 [Atherospermataceae SR07]
       |    `--A. moschatum DS04
       `--+--Siparunaceae SR07
          |    |--Siparuna [Siparunoideae] T00
          |    `--Glossocalyx [Glossocalycoideae] T00
          `--+--+--Gomortega [Gomortegaceae] SR07
             |  `--+--Lauraceae SR07
             |     `--Hernandiaceae T00
             |          |--Sparattanthelium [Sparattanthelioideae] T00
             |          |--Gyrocarpus DS04 [Gyrocarpoideae SR07]
             |          |    `--G. americanus DS04
             |          `--Hernandioideae SR07
             |               |--Hassimalania T00
             |               |--Illigera celebica T00, H03
             |               `--Hernandia T00
             |                    |--H. nymphaeifolia P88
             |                    |--H. ovigera MBS12
             |                    `--H. sonora C55
             `--Monimiaceae T00
                  |  i. s.: Kibara YY22
                  |         Kairoa H03
                  |         Anthobembix YY22
                  |         Ephippiandra YY22
                  |         Hennecartia YY22
                  |         Levieria YY22
                  |         Matthaea YY22
                  |         Steganthera YY22
                  |         Tambourissa YY22
                  |         Tetrasyandra YY22
                  |         Wilkiea huegeliana YY22, M04
                  |         Chloropatane YY22
                  |         Conuleum YY22
                  |         Hedycarya Forster & Forster 1776 A61
                  |           `--H. arborea Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
                  |         Macropeplus YY22
                  |         Macrotorus YY22
                  |         Daphnandra YY22
                  |         Doryphora DS04
                  |           |--D. aromatica DS04
                  |           `--D. sassafras DS04
                  |         Nemuaron YY22
                  |         Carnegia YY22
                  |         Carnegieodoxa YY22
                  |         Lauterbachia YY22
                  |         Laurelia Juss. 1809 A61
                  |           |--L. aromatica D03
                  |           `--L. novae-zelandiae Cunn. 1838 [=Atherosperma novae-zelandiae (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1864] A61
                  |         Palmeria scandens W99
                  |--Mollinedioideae SR07
                  |    |--Xymalos T00
                  |    `--Mollinedia latifolia MM96
                  `--+--Hortonia [Hortoniaceae, Hortonioideae] SR07
                     `--Monimioideae SR07
                          |--Monimia vestita Ettingshausen 1886 F71
                          `--Peumus T00

Hedycarya arborea Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. H. dentata Forst. f. 1786, Zanthoxylum novae-zelandiae Rich. 1832, H. scabra Cunn. 1838] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MBS12] Maple, D. J., R. Barr & M. J. Smith. 2012. A new record of the Christmas Island blind snake, Ramphotyphlops exocoeti (Reptilia: Squamata: Typhlopidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 156-160.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

Renner, S. S. 1999. Circumscription and phylogeny of the Laurales: evidence from molecular and morphological data. American Journal of Botany 86 (9): 1301-1315.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197-200.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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