Chinese lantern tree Hernandia nymphaeifolia, photographed by Tau'olunga.

Belongs within: Magnoliidae.
Contains: Lauraceae.

The Laurales are a clade of flowering plants with perigynous flowers, with the carpel(s) often deeply embedded in a fleshy receptacle that may or may not become woody in fruit. Many species also have uniovulate carpels, unilacunar nodes, opposite leaves, and/or inaperturate pollen, though these characters vary within the clade and are also found in taxa outside the clade. Most species are shrubs and trees, except for some lianas in the Hernandiaceae and Monimiaceae, and the parasitic vine genus Cassytha in the Lauraceae. The Monimiaceae are found in tropical and subtropical regions, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, with the highest diversity in New Guinea. They bear regular flowers with a single perianth whorl, divided into four or more segments, with the disk fused to the perianth; anthers open by slits or valves (Allan 1961).

Laurales [Laurineae]
    |  i. s.: Prisca Retallack & Dilcher 1981 non de Gregorio 1930 (ICZN) [Priscaceae] CBH93
    |           `--P. reynoldsii Retallack & Dilcher 1981 CBH93
    |--Calycanthaceae SR07
    |    |--Idiospermum DS04 [Idiospermoideae T00]
    |    |    `--I. australiense DS04
    |    `--Calycanthoideae T00
    |         |--Chimonanthus praecox T00, DS04 [incl. C. fragrans LO98]
    |         |--Sinocalycanthus T00
    |         `--Calycanthus XR12
    |              |--C. floridus XR12
    |              `--C. occidentalis DS04
    `--+--Atherosperma DS04 [Atherospermataceae SR07]
       |    `--A. moschatum DS04
       `--+--Siparunaceae SR07
          |    |--Siparuna [Siparunoideae] T00
          |    |    `--S. nicaraguensis OB11
          |    `--Glossocalyx [Glossocalycoideae] T00
          `--+--+--Gomortega [Gomortegaceae] SR07
             |  `--+--Lauraceae SR07
             |     `--Hernandiaceae T00
             |          |--Sparattanthelium [Sparattanthelioideae] T00
             |          |--Gyrocarpus DS04 [Gyrocarpoideae SR07]
             |          |    `--G. americanus DS04
             |          |         |--G. a. ssp. americanus LK14
             |          |         `--G. a. ssp. pachyphyllus LK14
             |          `--Hernandioideae SR07
             |               |--Hassimalania T00
             |               |--Illigera celebica T00, H03
             |               `--Hernandia T00
             |                    |--H. nymphaeifolia P88
             |                    |--H. ovigera MBS12
             |                    `--H. sonora C55
             `--Monimiaceae T00
                  |  i. s.: Kibara YY22
                  |         Kairoa H03
                  |         Anthobembix YY22
                  |         Ephippiandra YY22
                  |         Hennecartia YY22
                  |         Levieria YY22
                  |         Matthaea YY22
                  |         Steganthera YY22
                  |         Tambourissa YY22
                  |         Tetrasyandra YY22
                  |         Wilkiea YY22
                  |           |--W. austroqueenslandica H90
                  |           |--W. huegeliana NC91
                  |           `--W. macrophylla NC91
                  |         Chloropatane YY22
                  |         Conuleum YY22
                  |         Hedycarya Forster & Forster 1776 A61
                  |           |--H. angustifolia H90
                  |           `--H. arborea Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
                  |         Macropeplus YY22
                  |         Macrotorus YY22
                  |         Daphnandra YY22
                  |           |--D. micrantha B00
                  |           |--D. repandula B00
                  |           `--D. tenuipes H90
                  |         Doryphora DS04
                  |           |--D. aromatica DS04
                  |           `--D. sassafras DS04
                  |         Nemuaron YY22
                  |         Carnegia YY22
                  |         Carnegieodoxa YY22
                  |         Lauterbachia YY22
                  |         Laurelia Juss. 1809 A61
                  |           |--L. aromatica D03
                  |           `--L. novae-zelandiae Cunn. 1838 [=Atherosperma novae-zelandiae (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1864] A61
                  |         Palmeria scandens W99
                  |         Tetrasynandra B00
                  |           |--T. laxiflora B00
                  |           `--T. pubescens B00
                  |         Hedycaryoxylon subaffine (Vater) Suss 1960 CBH93
                  |         Protohedycarya ilicoides (Heer) Rüffle 1965 CBH93
                  |--Mollinedioideae SR07
                  |    |--Xymalos T00
                  |    `--Mollinedia MM96
                  |         |--M. huegelii M87
                  |         `--M. latifolia MM96
                  `--+--Hortonia [Hortoniaceae, Hortonioideae] SR07
                     `--Monimioideae SR07
                          |--Monimia vestita Ettingshausen 1886 F71
                          `--Peumus T00

Hedycarya arborea Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. H. dentata Forst. f. 1786, Zanthoxylum novae-zelandiae Rich. 1832, H. scabra Cunn. 1838] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MBS12] Maple, D. J., R. Barr & M. J. Smith. 2012. A new record of the Christmas Island blind snake, Ramphotyphlops exocoeti (Reptilia: Squamata: Typhlopidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 156–160.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 23 March 2021.

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