Saxifragales

American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua, from here.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae.

The Saxifragales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Members of the clade are morphologically very diverse, including both herbaceous taxa (e.g. Saxifragaceae, Crassulaceae) and the wind-pollinated hamamelid taxa (e.g. Hamamelidaceae, Altingiaceae).

<==Saxifragales
    |--Saxifragaceae WM09
    `--+--Cercidiphyllaceae WM09
       |    |--Cercidiphyllum japonicum WM09
       |    `--Trochodendroides arctica Z02
       `--Hamamelidineae [Hamamelidales] T00
            |--Hamamelidaceae WM09
            |    |  i. s.: Sycopsis YY22
            |    |         Distylium racemosum LO98
            |    |         Bucklandia YY22
            |    |         Sinowilsonia YY22
            |    |         Corylopsis spicata [incl. Rotlera japonica] LO98
            |    |--Disanthus [Disanthoideae] T00
            |    |--Hamamelis WM09 [Hamamelidoideae T00]
            |    |    |--H. japonica WM09
            |    |    |--H. vernalis D37
            |    |    `--H. virginiana D37
            |    `--Exbucklandioideae T00
            |         |--Exbucklandia populnea D07
            |         |--Mytilaria T00
            |         `--Rhodoleia [Rhodoleioideae] T00
            `--+--Microaltingia PI-BW04
               `--Altingiaceae [Altingioideae, Liquidambaroideae] WM09
                    |--Altingia PI-BW04
                    |--Semiliquidambar PI-BW04
                    |--Evacarpa polysperma PI-BW04
                    |--Steinhauera subglobosa Presl 1838 PI-BW04
                    |--Ambaroxylon PI-BW04
                    |--Liquidambaroxylon PI-BW04
                    `--Liquidambar [=L. sect. Liquidambar] PI-BW04
                         |  i. s.: L. pachyphyllum PI-BW04
                         |--+--L. (sect. Cathayambar) formosana PI-BW04 [incl. L. maximowiczii LO98]
                         |  `--+--L. acalycina PI-BW04
                         |     `--L. changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen 2004 PI-BW04
                         `--+--L. orientalis PI-BW04
                            `--+--*L. styraciflua Linnaeus 1753 PI-BW04, CD07
                               |    |--L. s. var. styraciflua PI-BW04
                               |    `--L. s. var. mexicana PI-BW04
                               `--L. macrocarpa PI-BW04

Saxifragales incertae sedis:
  Paeoniales T00
    |--Glaucidiaceae T00
    `--Paeonia [Paeoniaceae] T00
  Itea [Iteaceae] T00
  Pterostemon [Pterostemonaceae] T00
  Tetracarpaea [Tetracarpaeaceae] T00
  Crassulaceae T00
  Penthorum [Penthoraceae] T00
  Aphanopetalum [Aphanopetalaceae] T00
  Ribes [Grossulariaceae] T00
    |--R. aurem D37
    |--R. cucullatum D03
    |--R. glaciale O88
    |--R. glutinosum H59
    |--R. griffithii O88
    |--R. grossularia C55
    |--R. luridum O88
    |--R. magellanicum D03
    |--R. rubrum C55
    |--R. sanguineum D37
    `--R. uva-crispa C55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PI-BW04] Pigg, K. B., S. M. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen. 2004. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 499-509.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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