Opostega salaciella, from here.

Belongs within: Glossata.
Contains: Incurvarioidea, Ditrysia.

The Heteroneura is a major clade of Lepidoptera, basally characterised by the coupling of the fore and hind wings (though this has been lost in some derived subgroups). Major subgroups include the leaf-mining Nepticuloidea, some species of which are among the smallest lepidopterans (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Female genitalia with gonopore separate from ovipore, no connection between the two tracts; reduction in branching of Rs veins in hind wing; wings coupled with frenulum and retinaculum; loss of abdominal sternum 1.

<==Heteroneura [Nepticulina]
    |--Andesiana Gentili 1989 [Andesianidae, Andesianoidea] DG03
    |    |--*A. lamellata Gentili 1989 DG03
    |    |--A. brunnea Gentili 1989 DG03
    |    `--A. similis Gentili 1989 DG03
    |--+--Incurvarioidea WRM02
    |  `--+--Ditrysia WRM02
    |     `--+--Tischeria [Tischeriidae, Tischerioidea] WRM02
    |        |    |--T. badiiella WRM02
    |        |    |--T. citrinipennella WRM02
    |        |    `--T. subcanalis G17
    |        `--Palaephatidae [Palaephatoidea] WRM02
    |             |--Ptyssoptera AY04
    |             `--Palaephatus WRM02
    |                  |--P. dimorphus DG03
    |                  `--P. falsus WRM02
    `--Nepticuloidea WRM02
         |--Opostegidae NB03
         |    |--Paralopostega NB03
         |    `--Opostega WRM02
         |         |--O. nonstrigella P27
         |         |--O. quadristrigella P27
         |         `--O. saliciella WRM02
         `--Nepticulidae NB03
              |  i. s.: Ectoedemia HD03
              |           |--E. populella WRM02
              |           `--E. vannifera HD03
              |         Stigmella NB03
              |           |--S. betulicola NB03
              |           |--S. ebbenielseni van Nieukerken & van den Berg 2003 (see below for synonymy) NB03
              |           `--S. tiliae NB03
              |--Pectinivalvinae AY04
              |    |--Pectinivalva AY04
              |    `--Roscidotoga AY04
              `--Nepticula P27 [Nepticulinae AY04]
                   |--N. lucida P27
                   `--N. rhamnicola P27

Heteroneura incertae sedis:
  Scythris [Scythridae] P27
    `--S. epistrota P27
  Amphitheridae P27
    |--Amphithera heteroleuca P27
    `--Enchoptila idiopis P27
  Irenicodes [Diplosariidae] P27
    `--I. eurychora P27
  Orneodes [Orneodidae] P27
    |--O. objurgatella B88
    `--O. phricodes P27
  Coenoloba [Tineodinidae] P27
    `--C. obliteralis P27

Stigmella ebbenielseni van Nieukerken & van den Berg 2003 [=Nepticula barbarogama Meyrick in van Nieukerken & Van den Berg 2003 (n. n.)] NB03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[DG03] Davis, D. R., & P. Gentili. 2003. Andesianidae, a new family of monotrysian moths (Lepidoptera: Andesianoidea) from South America. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 15-26.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[HD03] Hoare, R. J. B., & J. S. Dugdale. 2003. Description of the New Zealand incurvarioid Xanadoses nielseni, gen. nov., sp. nov. and placement in Cecidosidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 47-57.

[NB03] Nieukerken, E. J. van, & C. van der Berg. 2003. A new Stigmella feeding on Urticaceae from Guam: First records of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) from Micronesia and Polynesia. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 27-37.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67-81.

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