Macropterous females and brachypterous male of Melittobia acasta, photographed by Paul Westrich.

Belongs within: Eulophinae.
Contains: Tetrastichus, Neotrichoporoides, Aprostocetus.

The Tetrastichinae is a group of weakly sclerotised small wasps, most of which are parasites of gall-forming Lepidoptera and Diptera. Bouček (1988) recognised two tribes within the Tetrastichinae, with the great majority of species placed in the Tetrastichini. The Australasian genus Gyrolasomyia was placed in its own tribe; it differs from other tetrastichines in its non-collapsing gaster, greatly shortened antennae and head and thorax covered with short decumbent hairs. Other notable genera include Melittobia, species of which are most commonly gregarious ectoparasites of larvae and pupae of solitary wasps and bees; males are brachypterous and do not leave the parent nest with dispersal being done only by the macropterous females (Bouček 1988).

Characters (from Bouček 1988): Notauli always deep and straight notauli; axillulae on sides of the scutellum mostly visible from above together with lateral grooves which separate them and form with the usually present submedian grooves a characteristic pattern; submarginal vein 'broken' at apex from parastigma. Female antenna originally with 4 anelli (which may be reduced in number) and 3 funicular segments; male antenna usually with a full segment instead of the fourth anellus, and often a 'plaque', a thickened elongate ridge on ventral side (continuing dorsally at the apex in Arachnoobius) of the scape, and often characteristic rows or whorls of bristles on flagellum.

<==Tetrastichinae [Tetrastichidae]
    |--Hadrotrichodes waukheon HB13
    `--+--Crataepus marbis HB13
       `--Tetrastichini [Ceratoneurini, Melittobiini] B88
            |  i. s.: Tetrastichus B88
            |         Neotrichoporoides B88
            |         Tetrastichomphale Girault 1935 B88
            |           `--*T. multivena Girault 1935 B88
            |         Tetrasta Bouček 1988 B88
            |           `--*T. perthensis Bouček 1988 B88
            |         Ceratoneuropsis Girault 1913 B88
            |           `--*C. poincarei Girault 1913 [incl. C. affinis Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915] B88
            |         Pracetus Bouček 1988 B88
            |           `--*P. longus Bouček 1988 B88
            |         Euceratoneura Girault 1920 B88
            |           `--*E. shellyi Girault 1920 B88
            |         Aceratoneura Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915 B88
            |           `--*A. splendida Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915 B88
            |         Arachnoobius Bouček 1988 B88
            |           `--*A. austini Bouček 1988 B88
            |         Goethella Girault 1928 B88
            |           `--*G. asulcata Girault 1928 B88
            |         Gasterichus Bouček 1988 B88
            |           `--*G. ensis Bouček 1988 B88
            |         Eulophoscotolinx Girault 1913 B88
            |           `--*E. viridis Girault 1913 B88
            |         Citrostichus Bouček 1988 B88
            |           `--*C. phyllocnistoides (Narayanan 1960) (see below for synonymy) B88
            |         Tachinobia Bouček 1977 B88
            |           `--*T. repanda Bouček 1977 B88
            |         Mestocharella Girault 1913 B88
            |           |--*M. feralis Girault 1913 B88
            |           `--M. javensis B88
            |         Parachrysocharis Girault 1913 B88
            |           |--*P. javensis Girault 1913 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           `--P. semiflava Girault 1917 B88
            |         Aceratoneuromyia Girault 1917 B88
            |           |--A. indica (Silvestri 1910) B88 (see below for synonymy)
            |           `--A. granularis B88
            |         Ceratoneuronella Girault 1913 [incl. Buonapartea Girault 1924] B88
            |           |--*C. nigriventris Girault 1913 B88
            |           |--C. aligherini Girault 1915 B88
            |           `--C. rufobasalis Girault 1915 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |         Ceratoneura Ashmead 1894 [incl. Ceratotetrastichus Girault 1917, Paraceratoneura Girault 1915] B88
            |           |--*C. petiolata B88
            |           |--C. goethei (Girault 1915) [=*Paraceratoneura goethei] B88
            |           |--C. indi Girault 1917 [incl. C. indica Rohwer 1921] B88
            |           `--C. miltoni Girault 1920 B88
            |         Epichrysocharis Girault 1913 [incl. Brachychrysocharopsis Girault 1922] B88
            |           |--*E. fusca (Girault 1913) [=Quadrastichus fusca] B88
            |           |--E. aligherini (Girault 1922) [=*Brachychrysocharopsis aligherini] B88
            |           |--E. burwelli AY04
            |           `--E. nigriventris (Girault 1913) [=Epentastichus nigriventris] B88
            |         Oomyzus Rondani 1870 B88
            |           |--*O. gallerucae [=Pteromalus gallerucae] B88
            |           |--O. ovulorum (Ferrière 1930) [=Tetrastichus ovulorum] B88
            |           |--O. scaposus (Thomson 1878) (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           `--O. tyriotes (Walker 1839) [=Cirrospilus tyriotes] B88
            |         Tamarixia Mercet 1924 B88
            |           |--*T. bicolor B88
            |           |--T. cometes (Girault 1915) [=Selitrichodella cometes] B88
            |           |--T. dryi [=Tetrastichus dryi] B88
            |           |--T. meteora (Girault 1915) [=Selitrichodella meteora] B88
            |           `--T. radiata [=Tetrastichus radiatus] B88
            |         Quadrastichodella Girault 1913 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |--*Q. bella Girault 1913 B88
            |           |--Q. aenea Girault 1913 B88
            |           |--Q. boudiennyi Girault 1937 [=Q. nova Girault 1929 non Girault 1922] B88
            |           |--Q. candida (Girault 1913) [=Neotetrastichodes candidus] B88
            |           |--Q. cyaneiviridis (Girault 1913) [=*Quadrastichodes cyaneiviridis] B88
            |           `--Q. nova Girault 1922 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |         Sigmophora Rondani 1867 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |--*S. scrophulariella B88
            |           |--*Lopodytes’ asphondyliae [=*Lopodytiscus asphondyliae] B88
            |           |--S. bilobata (Girault 1929) [=Neomphaloidella bilobata] B88
            |           |--S. electra (Girault 1915) [=Neotetrastichodes electra] B88
            |           |--S. io (Girault 1913) (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |--S. otys (Walker 1839) (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |--S. spenceri (Girault 1915) [=*Euplectrotetrastichus spenceri] B88
            |           `--S. westwoodi (Girault 1913) [=Neomphaloidella westwoodi] B88
            |         Nesolynx Ashmead 1905 (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |--*N. flavipes Ashmead 1905 B88
            |           |--N. albiclavus NS91
            |           |--N. bisulcata (Girault & Dodd in Girault 1913) [=*Ceratotrastichus bisulcatus] B88
            |           |--*Aceratoneurella’ cinctiventris Girault 1917 G17b
            |           |--N. lividicaput (Girault 1913) [=*Omphalomomyia lividicaput] B88
            |           |--N. thymus (Girault 1916) (see below for synonymy) B88
            |           |    |--N. t. thymus G17b
            |           |    `--‘Omphalomomyia’ t. javae Girault 1917 G17b
            |           `--N. zygaenarum (Ferrière 1933) [=Syntomosphyrum zygaenarum] B88
            |--Aprostocetus HB13
            `--+--Minotetrastichus frontalis HB13
               `--Melittobia Westwood 1847 HB13, B88 [incl. Anthophorabia Newport 1849 B88]
                    |--M. acasta (Walker 1839) [=Cirrospilus acasta; incl. *M. audouinii] B88
                    |--M. australica Girault 1912 B88
                    |--M. chalybii A71
                    |--M. digitata HB13
                    |--M. hawaiiensis Perkins 1907 B88
                    `--M. megachilis (Packard 1864) GM79 [incl. Chrysocharis aeneus Brues 1908 G25, GM79]

Tetrastichinae incertae sedis:
  Oncastichus goughi AY04
  Leptocybe invasa AY04
  Galeopsomopsis Girault 1917 G17a
    |--*G. multisulcata Girault 1917 G17a
    |--G. squamosus Girault 1917 G17c
    `--G. viridicyanea (Ashmead 1904) G17a, GM79 [=Trichoporus viridicyaneus G17a]
  Galeopsomyia Girault 1916 G17a, GM79
    `--G. columbianus Ashmead 1888 GM79
  Paragaleopsomyia Girault 1917 G17a
    `--*P. eja Girault 1917 G17a
  Thripastichus gentilei (see below for synonymy) B88
  Gyrolasomyia Girault 1913 [Gyrolasomyiini] B88
    |--*G. washingtoni Girault 1913 B88
    `--G. asticha Bouček 1988 B88

Aceratoneuromyia indica (Silvestri 1910) B88 [=Syntomosphyrum indicum B88, Melittobia indicum G38; incl. *Aceratoneuromyia australia Girault 1917 B88]

Ceratoneuronella rufobasalis Girault 1915 [=Ceratoneurella (l. c.) rufobasalis, *Buonapartea rufobasalis] B88

*Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan 1960) [=Cirrospilus phyllocnistoides, Cirrospiloideus phyllocnistoides, Tetrastichus phyllocnistoides] B88

Nesolynx Ashmead 1905 [incl. Aceratoneurella Girault 1917, Ceratotrastichus Girault & Dodd in Girault 1913, Omphalomomyia Girault 1913] B88

Nesolynx thymus (Girault 1916) [=Omphalomomyia thymus; incl. Buonapartea aeniceps Girault 1924] B88

Oomyzus scaposus (Thomson 1878) [=Tetrastichus scaposus; incl. Syntomosphyrum cerococci Khan & Shafee 1981, T. coccinellae Kurdjumov 1912, S. taprobanes Waterston 1915] B88

*Parachrysocharis javensis Girault 1913 [incl. Tetrastichus pyrillae Crawford 1916, Syntomosphyrum udaipurensis Khan & Shafee 1980] B88

Quadrastichodella Girault 1913 [incl. Flockiella Timberlake 1957, Quadrastichodes Girault 1913] B88

Quadrastichodella nova Girault 1922 [incl. *Flockiella eucalypti Timberlake 1957, Q. obscurata DeSantis 1957] B88

Sigmophora Rondani 1867 [incl. Eulophotetrastichus Girault 1913, Euplectrotetrastichus Girault 1915, Lopodytes Rondani 1867 non Stal 1853, Lopodytiscus Ghesquière 1946] B88

Sigmophora io (Girault 1913) [=*Eulophotetrastichus io, Neomphaloidella io, N. heracliti Girault 1936; incl. Epitetrastichus x-carinatus Girault 1915] B88

Sigmophora otys (Walker 1839) [=Cirrospilus otys, Tetrastichus otys; incl. Neomphaloidella glucki Girault 1915, N. parkmani Girault 1929] B88

Thripastichus gentilei [=Tetrastichus gentilei; incl. Te. thripophorothripscidis Narayanan, Subba Rao & Ramachandra Rao 1960] B88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. Speciosissima genera nova eulophidorum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 54–58).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. New chalcid flies. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 72–77).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. Indications (in new insects) of ruling power and laws in nature. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 184–186).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 25 April 2019.

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