Fruiting bodies of Calonectria pyrochroa, photographed by Enrique Rubio Domínguez.

Belongs within: Hypocreales.

Calonectria is a genus of fungi growing saprobically or parasitically on plants, characterised by their distinctive ascomatal wall structure.

Characters (from Rossman et al. 1999): Ascomata superficial, solitary or gregarious, often on a small, basal pad of pseudoparenchymatous tissue, without a byssal subiculum or well-developed stroma. Ascomata globose to ovoid, orange to scarlet or dark umber, rarely yellow, KOH+ dark red, yellow in lactic acid, ascomatal base darkened, scaly to warted. Ascomatal wall of two regions: outer region of thick-walled, globose to angular cells extended to form scales or warts; inner region of hyaline, thin-walled, elongate cells. Asci clavate to long-clavate, apex usually simple, asci often evanescent at maturity. Ascospores ellipsoid to long-fusiform, 1- to multiseptate. Anamorph, where known, Cylindrocladium. Saprobic and pathogenic on dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, often fruiting on decaying leaves.

Calonectria [anam. Chionomyces Deighton & Pirozynski 1972] DP72
    |  i. s.: C. sect. Chiajaea Saccardo 1896 RS99
    |           |--C. hippocastani RS99
    |           `--‘Nectria’ venusta RS99
    |--C. pyrochroa (Desmazières) Saccardo 1878 (see below for synonymy) RS99
    |--C. arcuata DP72
    |--C. chorleyi Hansford 1946 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. ilicicola [anam. Cylindrocladium parasiticum; incl. Cy. crotalariae] RS99
    |--C. meliolae Hansford 1941 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. reteaudii [=Neonectria reteaudii Bugnic. 1939] RS99
    `--C. ugandae Hansford 1941 DP72

Calonectria chorleyi Hansford 1946 [anam. Chionomyces chorleyi (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 =Eriomycopsis chorleyi Hansford 1942] DP72

Calonectria meliolae Hansford 1941 [anam. *Chionomyces meliolicola (Ciferri) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 =Monacrosporium meliolicola Ciferri 1938; incl. Eriomycopsis meliolae Hansford 1942, E. robusta Hansford 1942] DP72

Calonectria pyrochroa (Desmazières) Saccardo 1878 [=Nectria pyrochroa Desmazières 1856; incl. N. abnormis Henn. 1897, *Calonectria daldiniana De Not. 1867, Ophionectria puiggarii Spegazzini 1889; anam. Cylindrocladium ilicicola (Hawley) Boedijn & Reitsma 1950 =Candelospora ilicicola Hawley in Rea & Hawley 1912, Cy. ilicicolum (l. c.)] RS99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1-110.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

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