Encyrtidae

Female Copidosoma floridanum ovipositing into egg of Trichoplusia ni, photographed by Max E. Badgley.


Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.
Contains: Mirini.

The Encyrtidae are a family of small wasps whose larvae are mostly endoparasites of Hemiptera or insect larvae.

Characters (from Bouček 1988): Flagellum with at most 9 segments (plus occasionally one very small anellus); mesothoracic pleuron greatly enlarged, convex, transformed into a large, undivided shield; mid coxae much nearer to fore coxae than to hind ones; mesoscutum convex and short, notauli absent or indicated by superficial lines strongly converging to meet at the pointed front end of scutellum; axillae transverse, often meeting in midline; marginal vein often shorter than the stigmal.

<==Encyrtidae
    |--Tetracneminae MH11
    |    |--Savzdargia MH11
    |    `--+--Leptomastides MH11
    |       `--+--Neodusmatia sangwani MH11
    |          `--Anagyrus MH11
    |               |--*A. greeni Howard 1896 G17b, GM79
    |               |--A. alpinus Girault 1917 G17b
    |               |--A. antoninae C81
    |               |--A. pseudococci MH11
    |               |--A. schoenherri A71
    |               `--A. yuccae (Coquillett 1890) G17b, GM79 [=Blastothrix yuccae G17b]
    `--Encyrtinae [Encyrtini] MH11
         |  i. s.: Tassonia Girault 1921 G21
         |           `--*T. gloriae Girault 1921 G21
         |         Chinchilla Girault 1928 G28
         |           `--*C. keatsi Girault 1928 G28
         |         Australia Girault 1928 G28 [=Australica (l. c.) GM79]
         |           `--*A. minuta Girault 1928 G28
         |         Encyrtus Latreille 1809 GM79
         |           |--E. aurantifasciatus G32a [incl. E. barbatus Timberlake 1919 G32a, GM79]
         |           |--E. fasciatus (Fonscolombe 1832) GM79
         |           |--E. garibaldia Girault 1933 G33
         |           |--E. longifuniculus Girault 1932 G32b
         |           `--E. purpureiventris Girault 1915 GM79
         |--Neocladia MH11
         `--+--Metaphycus MH11
            |    |--M. helvolus A71
            |    `--M. lounsburyi A71
            `--+--+--Trechnites MH11
               |  `--Copidosoma Ratzeburg 1844 MH11, GM79
               |       |--C. charon Guerrieri & Noyes 2001 F05
               |       |--C. floridanum WL00
               |       |--C. ortyx Guerrieri & Noyes 2001 F05
               |       |--C. shakespearei Girault 1923 G23
               |       |--C. truncatum MH11
               |       |--C. zdeneki Guerrieri & Noyes 2001 F05
               |       `--C. zolta Guerrieri & Noyes 2001 F05
               `--+--Cheiloneurus MH11
                  |    |--C. cervantesi Girault 1933 G33
                  |    |--C. dumasi Girault 1932 G32a
                  |    |--C. fulvescens MH11
                  |    `--C. javensis Girault 1917 G17a
                  `--+--Mirini MH11
                     `--Comperiella bifasciata MH11

Encyrtidae incertae sedis:
  Tachinaephagus Ashmead 1904 M83, GM79 [incl. Australencyrtus Johnson & Tiegs 1921 G24, GM79]
    `--T. zealandicus M83
  Zealandencyrtus yasumatsui M83
  Ooencyrtus A71
    |--O. bicolor Girault 1915 GM79
    |--O. californicus Girault 1917 [=Oenocyrtus (l. c.) californicus] G17b
    |--O. johnsoni (Howard 1898) GM79
    |--O. lacteiclavus Girault 1932 G32b
    |--O. pacificus Waterston 1915 GM79
    `--O. pityocampae (mercet 1921) L-SSY04
  Litomastix A71
    |--L. auricollis Thompson 1875 GM79
    `--L. truncatellus A71
  Xenoencyrtus niger C81
  Neodusmetia sangwani C81
  Microterys Thomson 1876 A71, GM79
    |--M. cincticornis Ashmead 1899 GM79
    |--M. clauseni A71
    |--M. flavus B88
    |--M. lunatus (Dalman 1820) GM79
    |--M. mazzinini Girault 1917 G17b
    |--M. speciosissimus Girault 1911 GM79
    |--M. sylvius (Dalman 1820) GM79
    |--M. tesselatus (Dalman 1820) GM79
    `--M. titiani Girault 1917 G17b
  Epidinocarsis Girault 1913 G17b, GM79
    `--E. lopezi LS96
  Paracopidosomopsis Girault 1916 G17c, GM79
    |--P. coleophorae (Mayr 1875) GM79 [=Copidosoma coleophorae G17c]
    |--P. floridana Ashmead 1900 GM79
    |--P. hartmanni (Mayr 1875) GM79 [=Copidosoma hartmanni G17c]
    |--P. japonicus G17d
    |    |--P. j. japonicus G17d
    |    `--P. j. nippon Girault 1917 G17d
    `--P. javae Girault 1917 G17a
  Blastothrix Mayr 1875 A71, GM79
    |--B. brittanica Girault 1917 G17d
    |--B. hardyi Girault 1922 G22
    |--B. mercurius G22
    `--B. sericea (Dalman 1820) GM79
  Parablatticida Girault 1924 G21, GM79 [incl. Holanusia Girault 1924 G24, GM79]
  Anagyropsis Girault 1917 G24, GM79
    |--A. australiensis (Girault 1912) GM79
    `--A. burnsi Girault 1921 G21
  Schedius euxoae Girault 1927 G27
  Syrphophagus aphidivorus B88
  Psyllaephagus umbro (Walker 1839) [=Miscogaster umbro] B88
  Charitopus [incl. Eupelmomorpha] B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213-232.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59-71).

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917b. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102-111).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[G21] Girault, A. A. 1921. New animals of Australia and old men of the earth. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 161-163).

[G22] Girault, A. A. 1922. The true remedy for head lice, dedication of a new animal to the quality of majesty and so forth. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 166).

[G23] Girault, A. A. 1923. Loves wooed and won in Australia. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 167-169).

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Homo perniciosus and new Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 178-181).

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 211-212).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221-224).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286-291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[G33] Girault, A. A. 1933a. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299-303).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: Models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802-812.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121-123.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[WL00] Wray, G. A., & C. J. Lowe. 2000. Developmental regulatory genes and echinoderm evolution. Systematic Biology 49 (1): 28-51.

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