Encyrtidae

Female Anagyrus pseudococci alongside remains of mealybug host, copyright Kent M. Daane.


Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.
Contains: Aphycus, Encyrtinae.

The Encyrtidae are a family of small wasps whose larvae are mostly endoparasites of Hemiptera or insect larvae. They have been divided between two subfamilies, with females of the Tetracneminae possessing a narrow filament (paratergite) connecting the ovipositor to the eight metasomal tergite.

Characters (from Bouček 1988): Flagellum with at most 9 segments (plus occasionally one very small anellus); mesothoracic pleuron greatly enlarged, convex, transformed into a large, undivided shield; mid coxae much nearer to fore coxae than to hind ones; mesoscutum convex and short, notauli absent or indicated by superficial lines strongly converging to meet at the pointed front end of scutellum; axillae transverse, often meeting in midline; marginal vein often shorter than the stigmal.

<==Encyrtidae [Tetracneminae]
    |--Savzdargia hofferi HB13
    `--+--Encyrtinae HB13
       `--+--Leptomastides MH11
          `--+--Neodusmetia sangwani MH11
             `--Anagyrus HB13
                  |--*A. greeni Howard 1896 G17b, GM79
                  |--A. alpinus Girault 1917 G17b
                  |--A. antoninae C81
                  |--A. australiensis S07
                  |--A. pseudococci HB13
                  |--A. schoenherri A71
                  `--A. yuccae (Coquillett 1890) G17b, GM79 [=Blastothrix yuccae G17b]

Encyrtidae incertae sedis:
  Zealandencyrtus yasumatsui M83
  Epidinocarsis Girault 1913 G17b, GM79
    `--E. lopezi LS96
  Paracopidosomopsis Girault 1916 G17c, GM79
    |--P. coleophorae (Mayr 1875) GM79 [=Copidosoma coleophorae G17c]
    |--P. floridana Ashmead 1900 GM79
    |--P. hartmanni (Mayr 1875) GM79 [=Copidosoma hartmanni G17c]
    |--P. japonicus G17d
    |    |--P. j. japonicus G17d
    |    `--P. j. nippon Girault 1917 G17d
    `--P. javae Girault 1917 G17a
  Blastothrix Mayr 1875 A71, GM79
    |--B. brittanica Girault 1917 G17d
    |--B. hardyi Girault 1922 G22
    |--B. mercurius G22
    `--B. sericea (Dalman 1820) GM79
  Parablatticida Girault 1924 G21, GM79 [incl. Holanusia Girault 1924 G24, GM79]
  Anagyropsis Girault 1917 G24, GM79
    |--A. australiensis (Girault 1912) GM79
    `--A. burnsi Girault 1921 G21
  Schedius euxoae Girault 1927 G27
  Charitopus [incl. Eupelmomorpha] B88
  Tetracyclos Kryger 1942 H83
    `--*T. boreios Kryger 1942 H83
  Oobius HB13
  Stemmatosteres H83
  Globulencyrtus Hoffer 1975 ST08
    |--*G. politus (Hoffer 1957) [=Semen politum] ST08
    `--G. dahmsi Simutnik & Trjapitzin 2008 T14
  Homalotylus S07
    |--H. flavimesopleuron Girault 1917 G17d
    |--H. microgaster Girault 1917 GM79
    `--H. orci Girault 1917 G17a
  Leptomastix N91
    |--L. bicoloricornis Girault 1915 GM79
    `--L. varithorax Girault 1923 G23
  Callipteroma N91
  Ananusia N91
  Dinocarsis B37
    |--D. fasciiscapus Girault 1932 G32b
    |--D. holbeini Girault 1923 G23b
    |--D. rotundiceps Girault 1932 G32a
    |--D. spica Girault 1921 GM79
    `--D. thyridopterigis B37
  Propelma rohdendorfi RJ93
  Aphycini S96
    |--Aphycus G32a
    `--Mucrencyrtus Noyes 1980 [Paraphycina] S96
         |--*M. insulanus Noyes 1980 S96
         |--M. aclerdae (De Santis 1972) [=Aenasioidea aclerdae] S96
         |--M. arundinariae Sharkov 1996 S96
         |--M. atratus Sharkov 1996 S96
         |--M. dbari Sharkov 1996 S96
         |--M. ecuadorensis Sharkov 1996 S96
         |--M. ferrierei (Burks 1964) [=Aenasioidea ferrierei] S96
         `--M. variabilis Sharkov 1996 S96
  Comones ferrierei S96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B37] Balduf, W. V. 1937. Bionomic notes on the common bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw., (Lepid., Psychidae) and its insect enemies (Hym., Lepid.). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (7): 169–184.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102–111).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116–131).

[G21] Girault, A. A. 1921. New animals of Australia and old men of the earth. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 161–163).

[G22] Girault, A. A. 1922. The true remedy for head lice, dedication of a new animal to the quality of majesty and so forth. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 166).

[G23] Girault, A. A. 1923. Loves wooed and won in Australia. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 167–169).

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Homo perniciosus and new Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 178–181).

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 211–212).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286–291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[H83] Hayat, M. 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology 8: 63–102.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802–812.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Sharkov, A. 1996. A review of the species of the genus Mucrencyrtus Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 350–368.

[ST08] Simutnik, S. A., & V. A. Trjapitzin. 2008. Description of a new species of the genus Globulencyrtus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) from Australia with information of G. politus, the type species, a parasitoid of mites of the family Caeculidae (Acarina). Vestnik Zoologii 42 (6): 559–562.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[T14] Taylor, C. K. 2014. Two further Neocaeculus species (Acari: Prostigmata: Caeculidae) from Barrow Island, Western Australia. Acarologia 54 (3): 347–358.

Last updated: 8 February 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS