Tortricidae

Cryptophlebia ombrodelta, photographed by 57Andrew.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Tortrix.

The Tortricidae are a group of small to medium moths, including the leafrollers and related species, whose larvae may feed in plant detritus or as borers in living plants. Adult tortricids are usually a mottled or marbled brown (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Small to medium-sized (10–40 mm wingspan), usually with mottled and marbled brown colours. Oviscapt large and flat; eggs often flatted and scale-like, may be surrounded by the ovipositing female with specialised scales.

<==Tortricidae
    |  i. s.: Pandemis pyrusana MC02
    |         Tortricites skalskii Z02
    |         Capua M83
    |           |--C. intractana P27
    |           |--C. plagiatana L27
    |           `--C. semiferana M83
    |         Archipini AY04
    |           |--Merophyas AY04
    |           |    |--M. divulsana B88
    |           |    `--M. leucariana M83
    |           |--Epiphyas postvittana AY04, WFS04
    |           `--Archips GE05
    |         Sperchia intractana M83
    |         Cacoecia A71
    |           |--C. australana P27
    |           |--C. polygraphana P27
    |           `--C. rosana A71
    |         Cnephasia J-PWM04
    |           |--C. incessana L27
    |           |--C. jactatana J-PWM04
    |           |--C. latomana M27
    |           |--C. melanophaea Meyrick 1927 M27
    |           `--C. rupicolana P27
    |         Ctenopseustis obliquana WFS04
    |         Tortrix M27
    |         Epinotia aporema J-PWM04
    |         Choristoneura MC02
    |           |--C. fumiferana MC02
    |           `--C. rosaceana MC02
    |         Thaumatotibia KN03
    |         Lasiognatha leveri KN03
    |         Procalyptis parooptera KN03
    |         Centroxena KN03
    |         Catamacta M27
    |           |--C. calligypsa M27
    |           |--C. gavisana P27
    |           `--C. lotinana L27
    |         Epichorista M27
    |           |--E. emphanes P27
    |           |--E. siriana M27
    |           `--E. triorthota Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         Harmologa M27
    |           |--H. amplexana P27
    |           `--H. columella Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         Gelophaula siraea P27
    |         Acropolitis rudis P27
    |         Epalxiphora axenana P27
    |         Pyrgotis pyramidias P27
    |         Proselena antiquana P27
    |         Homona P27
    |           |--H. coffearia VHK02
    |           `--H. similans P27
    |         Scolioplecta comptana P27
    |         Argyrotaenia GE05
    |         Arotrophora AY04
    |         Peraglyphis AY04
    |         Syllomatia AY04
    |         Ericodesma AY04
    |         Lobesia botrana YS10
    |         Agapeta zoegana CLB99
    |         Ophiorrhabda phaeosigma ZS10
    |         Epitymbia eudrosa ZS10
    `--Olethreutinae [Eucosmidae] KN03
         |--Piniphila Z02
         |--Bactra noteraula P27
         |--Argyroploce illepida P27
         |--Spilonota P27
         |    |--S. dolopaea L27
         |    `--S. macropetana P27
         |--Eucosma KN03
         |    |--E. coniogramma Clarke 1976 [incl. E. okubiensis Kawabe 1987] KN03
         |    |--E. critica VHK02
         |    |--E. querula L27
         |    `--E. trangulana P27
         |--Cydia P27
         |    |--C. deshaisiana GE05
         |    |--C. leucostoma [=Laspeyrasia leucostoma] VHK02
         |    |--C. molesta J01
         |    |--C. pomonella J01
         |    `--C. tricentra VHK02
         `--Cryptophlebia KN03
              |--C. amamiana Komai & Nasu 2003 KN03
              |--C. horii Kawabe 1987 KN03
              |--C. lasiandra KN03
              |--C. leucotreta B88
              |--C. ombrodelta KN03
              |--C. palustris Komai & Nasu 2003 KN03
              `--C. rhizophorae Vári 1981 KN03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CLB99] Callaway, R. M., T. H. DeLuca & W. M. Belliveau. 1999. Biological control herbivores may increase competitive ability of the noxious weed Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 80: 1196-1201.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J01] James, D. G. 2001. History and perspectives of biological mite control in Australian horticulture using exotic and native phytoseiids. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 436-443. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[J-PWM04] Jiménez-Pérez, A., Q. Wang & N. Markwick. 2004. Intrinsic rate of increase in ‘Cnephasia’ jactatana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a pest of kiwifruit. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 109-112.

[KN03] Komai, F., & Y. Nasu. 2003. Four species of Olethreutinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with viviparous seedlings of the mangrove Rhizophoraceae in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 75-87.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140-150.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245-306.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634-661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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