Tortricidae

Codling moth Cydia pomonella, copyright Ola Leillinger.


Belongs within: Heteroneura.
Contains: Archipini, Tortrix, Eucosmini, Olethreutini.

The Tortricidae are a group of small to medium moths, including the leafrollers and related species, whose larvae may feed in plant detritus or as borers in living plants. Adult tortricids are usually a mottled or marbled brown (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the subfamily Tortricinae bear two annuli of scales per antennal segment whereas Olethreutinae bear only a single annulus per segment (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Small to medium-sized (10–40 mm wingspan), usually with mottled and marbled brown colours. Oviscapt large and flat; eggs often flatted and scale-like, may be surrounded by the ovipositing female with specialised scales.

<==Tortricidae [Tortricoidea] GE05
    |--Chlidanotinae NC91
    |    |--Polyorthini NC91
    |    |--Hilarographini NC91
    |    `--Trymalitis [Chlidanotini] NC91
    |         `--T. optima NC91
    |--Tortricinae NC91
    |    |  i. s.: Palaeotoma styphelana C70
    |    |         Anisogona simana C70
    |    |         Acropolitis rudisana C70
    |    |--Archipini NC91
    |    |--Phricanthes [Phricanthini] NC91
    |    |    `--P. asperana NC91
    |    |--Cochylini [Cochylidae, Phaloniidae] NC91
    |    |    |--Clysiana acrographa C70
    |    |    `--Heliocosma incongruana C70
    |    |--Proselena [Schoenotenini] NC91
    |    |    |--P. annosana NC91
    |    |    `--P. antiquana P27
    |    |--Epitymbia [Epitymbiini] NC91
    |    |    |--E. cosmota NC91
    |    |    `--E. eudrosa ZS10
    |    `--Tortricini NC91
    |         |--Tortrix M27
    |         `--Eboda exeristis NC91
    `--Olethreutinae [Eucosmidae] KN03
         |  i. s.: Piniphila Z02
         |         Argyroploce P27
         |           |--A. illepida P27
         |           `--A. ineptana F92
         |         Spilonota P27
         |           |--S. dolopaea L27
         |           |--S. infensa C70
         |           |--S. lariciana F92
         |           `--S. macropetana P27
         |         Acroclita erythrana C70
         |--Eucosmini NC91
         |--Olethreutini NC91
         |--Gatesclarkeana [Gatesclarkeanini] NC91
         |    `--G. tenebrosa NC91
         |--Cryptaspasma [Microcorsini] NC91
         |    `--C. sordida NC91
         |--Bactra [Bactrini] NC91
         |    |--B. ablabes C70
         |    `--B. noteraula P27
         `--Grapholitini NC91
              |--Grapholita molesta NC91
              `--Cydia NC91
                   |--C. deshaisiana GE05
                   |--C. leucostoma [=Laspeyrasia leucostoma] VHK02
                   |--C. metallocosma NC91
                   |--C. molesta G84
                   |--C. pomonella YS10 [=Carpocapsa pomonella V09]
                   |--C. servillana F92
                   `--C. tricentra VHK02

Tortricidae incertae sedis:
  Pandemis MC02
    |--P. corylana V09
    |--P. heparana F92
    |--P. pyrusana MC02
    `--P. ribeana F92
  Tortricites skalskii Z02
  Capua M83
    |--C. intractana P27
    |--C. plagiatana L27
    |--C. reticulana F92
    `--C. semiferana M83
  Sperchia intractana M83
  Cacoecia A71
    |--C. australana P27
    |--C. costana F92
    |--C. murinana F92
    |--C. podana F92
    |--C. polygraphana P27
    |--C. pronubana F92
    |--C. rosana A71
    |--C. selten F92
    `--C. xylosteana F92
  Cnephasia J-PWM04
    |--C. incessana L27
    |--C. jactatana J-PWM04
    |--C. latomana M27
    |--C. melanophaea Meyrick 1927 M27
    `--C. rupicolana P27
  Ctenopseustis obliquana WFS04
  Choristoneura MC02
    |--C. fumiferana MC02
    |--C. murinana F92
    `--C. rosaceana MC02
  Thaumatotibia KN03
  Lasiognatha leveri KN03
  Procalyptis parooptera KN03
  Centroxena KN03
  Catamacta M27
    |--C. calligypsa M27
    |--C. gavisana P27
    `--C. lotinana L27
  Epichorista M27
    |--E. emphanes P27
    |--E. siriana M27
    `--E. triorthota Meyrick 1927 M27
  Harmologa M27
    |--H. amplexana P27
    `--H. columella Meyrick 1927 M27
  Gelophaula siraea P27
  Epalxiphora axenana P27
  Pyrgotis pyramidias P27
  Scolioplecta comptana P27
  Argyrotaenia GE05
  Peraglyphis AY04
  Syllomatia AY04
  Ericodesma AY04
  Agapeta V09
    |--A. hamana [=Exuanthis hamana] V09
    `--A. zoegana CLB99
  Ophiorrhabda phaeosigma ZS10
  Zeiraphera G84
    |--Z. diniana G84
    `--Z. griseana F92
  Rhyacionia V09
    |--R. pinicolana V09
    `--R. zonana G05
  Proeulia Clarke 1962 C62
    |--*P. robinsoni (Aurivillius in Skottsberg 1922) [=Eulia robinsoni] C62
    `--P. griseiceps (Aurivillius in Skottsberg 1922) [=Eulia griseiceps] C62
  Eulia pinitubana C62, G17
  Ecdytolopha G10
  Tanychaeta NC91
  Petrova resinella BJ02
  Isochorista cosmota Meyrick 1887 M87
  Loxotaenia xylosteana G38
  Ancylis G05
    |--A. comptana G05
    `--A. mitterbacheriana F92
  Electresia zalesskii RJ93
  Atteria D01
    |--A. buckleyi Druce 1901 D01
    |--A. lydia Druce 1901 D01
    |--A. maon Druce 1901 D01
    |--A. mimica D01
    |--A. splendens Druce 1901 D01
    `--A. volcanica D01
  Sparganothis pilleriana HW96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BJ02] Becnel, J. J., A. Jeyaprakash, M. A. Hoy & A. Shapiro. 2002. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new microsporidian species from the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari, Phytoseiidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 79: 163–172.

[CLB99] Callaway, R. M., T. H. DeLuca & W. M. Belliveau. 1999. Biological control herbivores may increase competitive ability of the noxious weed Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 80: 1196–1201.

[C62] Clarke, J. F. G. 1962. A new tortricid genus from South America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 293–294.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[D01] Druce, H. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[G10] Gaimari, S. D. 2010. Odiniidae (odiniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1055. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102–111).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[HW96] Hoebeke, E. R., & A. G. Wheeler, Jr. 1996. Pteromalus elevatus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): North American records of an immigrant parasitoid of the gall fly Urophora jaceana (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 87–92.

[J-PWM04] Jiménez-Pérez, A., Q. Wang & N. Markwick. 2004. Intrinsic rate of increase in ‘Cnephasia’ jactatana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a pest of kiwifruit. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 109–112.

[KN03] Komai, F., & Y. Nasu. 2003. Four species of Olethreutinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with viviparous seedlings of the mangrove Rhizophoraceae in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 75–87.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697–702.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 21 December 2019.

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