Synnema of Graphium laricis, from Jacobs et al. (2003). Scale bar equals 20 µm.

Belongs within: Sordariomycetes.

The Microascales are a group of fungi that are mostly saprobic in soil or decaying vegetation.

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2008): Stromata absent. Ascomata solitary, perithecial or cleistothecial, usually black, thin-walled, sometimes with well-developed smooth setae. Interascal tissue absent or rarely of undifferentiated hyphae. Asci ± globose to clavate, very thin-walled, evanescent, 8-spored, sometimes formed in chains. Ascospores hyaline, yellow or reddish brown, aseptate or septate, sometimes curved, sometimes with very inconspicuous germ pores, with or without a sheath. Anamorphs hyphomycetous, prominent. Saprobic from soil or rotting vegetation, sometimes marine, a few opportunistic human and animal pathogens.

    |  i. s.: Gondwanamyces Marais & Wingfield in Marais et al. 1998 EB03, E99 [anam. Knoxdaviesia E99]
    |           |--*G. proteae (Wingf., van Wyk & Marasas) Marais & Wingfield in Marais et al. 1998 E99
    |           `--G. capensis (Wingf. & van Wyk) Marais & Wingfield in Marais et al. 1998 E99
    |         Viennotidea Negru & Verona ex Rogerson 1970 EB03, RS99
    |           |--*V. spermosphaerici RS99
    |           |--V. fimicola [=Sphaeronaemella fimicola; anam. Gabarnaudia fimicola] RS99
    |           |--V. humicola [=Sphaeronaemella humicola] RS99
    |           `--V. raphani RS99
    |         anam. Sporendocladia bactrospora [=Phialocephala bactrospora] JC03
    |--Chadefaudiellaceae EB03
    |    |--Chadefaudiella EB03
    |    `--Faurelina EB03
    `--Microascaceae EB03
         |  i. s.: Anekabeeja EB03
         |         Canariomyces EB03
         |         Enterocarpus EB03
         |         Kernia EB03
         |         Lophotrichus EB03
         |         Pithoascus EB03
         |--Ceratocystis JKW03
         |    |--C. fimbriata JKW03
         |    |--C. laricicola JKW03
         |    |--C. polonica JKW03
         |    |--C. ulmi B82
         |    `--C. virescens ZB01
         `--anam. Graphium JKW03
              |  i. s.: anam. G. calicioides HWB03
              |         anam. G. putredinis JKW03
              |--+--+--anam. *G. penicillioides JKW03
              |  |  `--anam. G. basitruncatum JKW03
              |  `--+--anam. G. fimbriisporum (Morelet) Jacobs, Kirisits & Wingfield 2003 (see below for synonymy) JKW03
              |     `--+--anam. G. laricis Jacobs, Kirisits & Wingfield 2003 JKW03
              |        `--anam. G. pseudormiticum Mouton & Wingf. 1994 JKW03
              `--+--+--anam. G. fructicola JKW03
                 |  `--anam. G. tectonae JKW03
                 `--+--anam. G. eumorphum JKW03
                    `--+--+--Petriella setifera JC03, JKW03
                       |  `--Pseudallescheria JKW03
                       |       |--P. boydii JKW03
                       |       `--P. ellipsoidea JC03
                       `--Microascus JKW03 [anam. Scopulariopsis E99]
                            |--M. brevicaulis Abbott in Abbott et al. 1998 [anam. *Scopulariopsis brevicaulis] E99
                            |--M. cirrosus JKW03
                            `--M. trigonosporus HWB03

Graphium fimbriisporum (Morelet) Jacobs, Kirisits & Wingfield 2003 [=Rhexographium fimbriisporum Morelet 1995, R. fimbriasporum (l. c.)] JKW03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B82] Batra, S. W. T. 1982. Biological control in agroecosystems. Science 215: 134-139.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[HWB03] Henk, D. A., A. Weir & M. Blackwell. 2003. Laboulbeniopsis termitarius, an ectoparasite of termites newly recognized as a member of the Laboulbeniomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 561-564.

[JC03] Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phialocephala species and other ascomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 637-645.

[JKW03] Jacobs, K., T. Kirisits & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Taxonomic re-evaluation of three related species of Graphium, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 714-727.

Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter & J. A. Stalpers (eds) 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[ZB03] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355-365.

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