Green longhorns Adela reaumurella, copyright Nick Wood.

Belongs within: Heteroneura.

The Adeloidea are a group of small moths of which larvae include leaf-miners, gall-makers or internal borers of plants. Members include the Adelidae which have the longest antennae relative to body size of any Lepidoptera (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Cecidosidae, known from South Africa, South America and New Zealand, mostly develop as gall-formers on Anacardiaceae though larvae of the basal New Zealand Xanadoses nielseni are miners under smooth tree bark (Hoare & Dugdale 2003).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, as Incurvarioidea): Small to very small; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antennae short to markedly longer than fore wing, scape without eye-cap, often with pecten; proboscis long, short or absent, scaled near base; maxillary palps 5-segmented to reduced; labial palps 3-segmented (rarely absent), second segment with lateral bristles; epiphysis usually present; tibial spurs 0-2-4 (rarely 0-2-2); wings usually with microtrichia, hind wing usually with frenulum and pseudofrenular bristles; male often with rows of blunt spines (pectinifers) on valva and with arrow-shaped juxta; female with long vestibulum supported by strong muscle tendons ('guy wires') and piercing ovipositor for inserting eggs in plant tissues. Larva apodous or with short prolegs, crochets in transverse rows, anal prolegs and crochets usually absent; leaf-miners later cutting out or forming flattened cases used as portable shelters while leaf-skeletonising or feeding on flowers or for pupation, or gall-makers of internal borers in stems and twigs. Pupa protruded from case at ecdysis.

<==Adeloidea [Incurvarioidea] KP19
    |--Heliozelidae NC91
    |    |  i. s.: Hoplophanes chlorochrysa NC91
    |    |--Plesiozela Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 KK03
    |    |    |--*P. nielseni Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 (see below for synonymy) KK03
    |    |    `--P. patagonica Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 KK03
    |    `--+--Antispila cornifoliella KK03, WRM02
    |       |--Heliozela KK03
    |       |    |--H. prodela NC91
    |       |    `--H. resplendella (Stainton 1851) KK03
    |       `--Coptodisca KK03
    |            |--C. kalmiella WRM02
    |            `--C. splendiferella G17
    `--+--Adelidae NC91
       |    |  i. s.: Chalceopla WRM02
       |    |           |--C. cyanella P27
       |    |           `--C. simpliciella WRM02
       |    |         Adelites P92
       |    |--Ceromitia [Nematopogoninae] NC91
       |    |    `--C. iolampra NC91
       |    `--Adelinae NC91
       |         |--Nemophora C70
       |         |    |--N. degeerella KP19
       |         |    |--N. sparsella C91
       |         |    `--N. topazias C70
       |         `--Adela Latreille 1802 L02
       |              |--*A. reaumurella [=Alucita reaumurella] L02
       |              |--A. bella P27
       |              |--A. degeerella G20
       |              |--A. kuznetzovi RJ93
       |              |--A. pantherella Guénée 1849 E12
       |              |--A. septentrionalis WRM02
       |              |--A. trigrapha WRM02
       |              `--A. viridella R13
       `--+--Crinopterygidae NC91
          `--+--Incurvariidae [Incurvariinae] NC91
             |    |  i. s.: ‘Tinea’ monophthalma NC91
             |    |         ‘Tinea’ nectaria C70
             |    |         ‘Tinea’ phauloptera C70
             |    |--Perthida glyphopa KK03, SC04
             |    |--Incurvaria masculella DG03
             |    |--Incurvarites alienella P92
             |    `--Prophalonia P92
             `--+--Prodoxidae NC91
                |    |  i. s.: Greya politella GE05, WRM02
                |    `--Prodoxinae GE05
                |         |--Parategeticula GE05
                |         |--Prodoxus GE05
                |         |    |--P. decipiens EN20
                |         |    `--P. quinquepunctella WRM02
                |         `--Tegeticula GE05
                |              |--T. alba P27
                |              |--T. cassandra EN20
                |              |--T. corruptrix GE05
                |              |--T. filamentosa RD77
                |              |--T. intermedia GE05
                |              `--T. yuccasella WRM02
                `--Cecidosidae NC91
                     |--Xanadoses Hoare & Dugdale 2003 HD03
                     |    `--*X. nielseni Hoare & Dugdale 2003 HD03
                     `--+--+--Ptisanora Meyrick 1913 [incl. Liopseustis Meyrick 1928] HD03
                        |  |    `--*P. trivialis Meyrick 1913 [incl. P. planicola Meyrick 1928] HD03
                        |  `--Scyrotis Meyrick 1909 HD03
                        |       |--*S. athleta Meyrick 1909 HD03
                        |       |--S. diplopsamma Meyrick 1918 HD03
                        |       `--S. granosa Meyrick 1912 HD03
                        `--+--Cecidoses Curtis 1835 HD03
                           |    `--*C. eremita Curtis 1835 HD03
                           |--Eucecidoses Brèthes 1916 HD03
                           |    `--*E. minutanus Brèthes 1916 HD03
                           |--Oliera Brèthes 1916 HD03
                           |    `--*O. argentinana Brèthes 1916 HD03
                           `--Dicranoses Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910 [incl. Ridiaschina Brèthes 1916] HD03
                                |--*D. capsulifex Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910 HD03
                                `--D. congregatella Brèthes 1916 HD03

*Plesiozela nielseni Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 [=P. obliqua Nielsen ex Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 (n. n.)] KK03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DG03] Davis, D. R., & P. Gentili. 2003. Andesianidae, a new family of monotrysian moths (Lepidoptera: Andesianoidea) from South America. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 15–26.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HD03] Hoare, R. J. B., & J. S. Dugdale. 2003. Description of the New Zealand incurvarioid Xanadoses nielseni, gen. nov., sp. nov. and placement in Cecidosidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 47–57.

[KK03] Karsholt, O., & N. P. Kristensen. 2003. Plesiozela, gen. nov. from temperate South America: apparent sister-group of the previously known Heliozelidae (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea: Heliozelidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 39–46.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283–292.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

Last updated: 25 April 2022.

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