Ditrysia

Bucculatrix cristatella, copyright Ilia Ustyantsev.


Belongs within: Heteroneura.
Contains: Tineidae, Apoditrysia, Yponomeutoidea, Gracillariidae, Lyonetiidae, Psychinae.

The Ditrysia are a major clade of Lepidoptera accounting for some 98% of the species of the order. They are characterised by female genitalia with an internal connection between the copulatory opening and ovipore, as well as by large apodemes on the second abdominal sternite and short bands rather than long fibres in the proboscis muscles (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Basal members of the clade, historically gathered into the superfamily Tineoidea (now recognised as non-monophyletic) are small to medium-sized species with narrow, typically grey fore wings that often retain the M vein in the discal cell (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Simaethistiidae are a small, poorly known group of basal ditrysians found in eastern Asia and Australia

<==Ditrysia [Gracillarioidea, Papilionina, Tineina, Tineites, Tineoidea, Tortrices]
    |--Meessiinae [Meessiidae] KP19
    |    |--Meessia leopoldella YS10
    |    |--Demobrotis NC91
    |    `--Eudarcia simulatricella KP19
    `--+--+--+--Tineidae KP19
       |  |  `--Dryadaula [Dryadaulidae] KP19
       |  |       `--D. visaliella KP19
       |  `--+--Apoditrysia GE05
       |     `--+--+--Yponomeutoidea KP19
       |        |  `--Roeslerstammiidae [Amphitheridae, Amphitherinae] NC91
       |        |       |--Amphithera heteroleuca KP19, NC91
       |        |       |--Enchoptila idiopis P27
       |        |       |--Thereutis NC91
       |        |       |--Macarangela leucochrysa NC91, C91
       |        |       |--Nematobola NC91
       |        |       |--Chalcoteuches phlogera NC91
       |        |       `--Roeslerstammia NC91
       |        `--+--Gracillariidae KP19
       |           `--+--Bucculatricidae NC91
       |              |    |--Ogmograptis scribula NC91
       |              |    `--Bucculatrix KP19
       |              |         |--B. cristatella KP19
       |              |         |--B. gossypii NC91
       |              |         `--B. platani RJ93
       |              `--+--Lyonetiidae KP19
       |                 |--Bedellia NC91 [Bedelliidae M03, Bedelliinae]
       |                 |    |--B. psamminella L27
       |                 |    `--B. somnulentella P27
       |                 `--Heliodinidae M03
       |                      |--Thylacosceles acridomima P27
       |                      |--Heliodines princeps NC91
       |                      |--Epicroesa ambrosia NC91
       |                      |--Baltonides roeselliformis RJ93
       |                      `--Vanicela P27
       |                           |--V. disjunctella P27
       |                           `--V. xenadelpha P27
       `--Psychidae B37
            |  i. s.: Liothula omnivora WFS04
            |         Solenobia triquetrella D51
            |         Iphierga macarista NC91
            |         Epichnopteryx plumella (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
            |         Canephora JP05
            |           |--C. hirsuta Poda 1761 JP05
            |           `--C. unicolor RD77
            |         Paramictoides febretta YS10
            |         Pachythelia unicolor YS10
            |         Apterona YS10
            |         Plutorectis G84
            |         Paracharactis MC13
            |         Cryptothelea GE05
            |           |--C. cardiophaga IR05
            |           |--C. gloverii VC07
            |           `--C. junodi F92
            |         Luffia YS10
            |           |--L. ferchaultella BC91
            |           `--L. lapidella YS10
            |         Animula huebneri H01
            |         Cochliotheca RD77
            |           |--C. crenulella RD77
            |           `--C. helix RD77
            |         Acanthopsyche opacella [incl. A. atra] RD77
            |         Amicta RD77
            |         Sterrhopteryx pristinella Rebel 1934 P92
            |--Psychinae NC91
            |--Oiketicinae KP19
            |    |--Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis KP19
            |    `--Oiketicus G84
            |         |--O. elongatus G84
            |         `--O. kirbyi L81
            `--Taleporiinae NC91
                 |--Ctenocompa C70
                 |--Narycia saxosa C70, P27
                 |--Trigonocyttara clandestina C70
                 |--Lepidoscia arctiella C70
                 |--Cebysa leucotelus C70, NC91
                 `--Taleporia JP05
                      |--T. cawthronella P27
                      `--T. tubulosa (Retzius 1783) JP05

Ditrysia incertae sedis:
  Azinis hilarella WM66
  Apoprogonidae NC91
  Cerostoma Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*C. dorsatum [=Ypsolophus dorsatus] L02
    `--C. persicella F92
  Simaethistiidae GE05
  Pseudarbelidae NC91
  Arrhenophanidae NC91
  Acrolophus D01 [Acrolophidae GE05]
    |--A. boucardi Druce 1901 D01
    |--A. linus Druce 1901 D01
    `--A. underwoodi Druce 1901 D01
  Eucryptogona [Eriocottidae] NC91
    `--E. trichobathra NC91
  Douglasiidae NC91
    |--Douglasia Stainton 1854 [=Douglassia (l. c.) non Bartsch 1934] P66
    |--Tinagma leucanthes NC91
    `--Klimeschia NC91
  Melusina [Compsoctenidae] RD77
    `--M. energa RD77
  Euplocamus guttella G20

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC91] Baker, G. T., & A. Chandrapatya. 1991. Fine structure of the chorion of the broak mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 325–328. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B37] Balduf, W. V. 1937. Bionomic notes on the common bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw., (Lepid., Psychidae) and its insect enemies (Hym., Lepid.). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (7): 169–184.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D01] Druce, H. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1–2): 111–126.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59–66.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[VC07] Villanueva, R. T., & C. C. Childers. 2007. Insect predators of eriophyids on Florida citrus including a new predacious Lepidoptera and two cecidomyiids. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 391–395. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

Last updated: 3 March 2021.

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