Strumigeniti

Strumigenys dicomas, copyright April Nobile/antweb.org.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

The Strumigeniti, trapjaw ants and related taxa, are a group of ants in which many species have distinctive elongate mandibles. Others have more ordinary mandibles, and the elongate mandible form may have arisen on more than one occasion. Some genera have elongate mandibles that are massive and downturned, while others have the mandibles extended into long narrow blades (Bolton 1983).

Characters (from Bolton 1983): Eyes ventrolateral, placed within or beneath scrobes which are universally present though shallow and reduced in some. Antennae 4- or 6-segmented, apical segment much the longest of the funiculars. Palp formula is 1,1.

<==Strumigeniti B83
    |--Neostruma B83
    |--Asketogenys B83
    |--Chelystruma B83
    |--Codioxenus B83
    |--Dorisidris B83
    |--Dysedrognathus B83
    |--Gymnomyrmex B83
    |--Kyidris [incl. Polyhomoa] B83
    |--Pentastruma B83
    |--Tingimyrmex B83
    |--*Codiomyrmex thaxteri B83
    |--Cladarogenys Brown 1976 B83
    |    `--*C. lasia Brown 1976 B83
    |--Epitritus Emery 1869 B83
    |    |--*E. argiolus Emery 1869 B83
    |    |--E. hexamerus B83
    |    |--E. laticeps Brown 1962 B83
    |    |--E. minimus Bolton 1972 B83
    |    |--E. murphyi B83
    |    |--E. roomi Bolton 1972 B83
    |    `--E. tiglath Bolton 1983 B83
    |--Serrastruma Brown 1948 B83
    |    |--*S. simoni (Emery 1895) (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    |--S. concolor (Santschi 1914) [=Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) concolor] B83
    |    |--S. dotaja Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. geoterra Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. inquilina Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. ludovici (Forel 1904) (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    |--S. maynei (Forel 1916) (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    |--S. miccata Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. lujae (Forel 1902) (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    |--S. serrula (Santschi 1910) (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    `--S. sulumana Bolton 1983 B83
    |--Glamyromyrmex Wheeler 1915 [incl. Borgmeierita Brown 1953] B83
    |    |--*G. beebi Wheeler 1915 B83
    |    |--G. africanus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. crypturus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. dagon Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--‘Codiomyrmex’ excisus Weber 1934 [=*Borgmeierita excisa] B83
    |    |--G. loveridgei (Brown 1953) [=Codiomyrmex loveridgei] B83
    |    |--G. ravidurus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. sahurus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. sistrurus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. tetragnathus (Taylor 1965) [=Codiomyrmex tetragnathus] B83
    |    |--G. thuvidus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--G. trymalus Bolton 1983 B83
    |    `--G. tukultus Bolton 1983 B83
    |--Smithistruma Brown 1948 (see below for synonymy) B83
    |    |--*S. pulchella (Emery 1895) [=Strumigenys pulchella] B83
    |    |--S. alberti B83
    |    |--S. anarta Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. arahana Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. behasyla Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. capitata (Smith 1865) [=*Cephaloxys capitata] B83
    |    |--S. cavinasis Brown 1950 B83
    |    |--S. chyatha Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. datissa Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. dendexa Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. depressiceps (Weber 1934) [=Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) depressiceps, Sm. (*Platystruma) depressiceps] B83
    |    |--S. dietrichi B83
    |    |--S. dubia B83
    |    |--S. emarginata (Mayr 1901) [=Strumigenys emarginata] B83
    |    |--S. enkara Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. fenkara Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. fulda Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. gatuda Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. hensekta Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. hyphata B83
    |    |--S. impidora Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. kerasma Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. leptothrix (Wheeler 1929) [=Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) leptothrix, Sm. (*Weberistruma) leptothrix] B83
    |    |--S. malaplax Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. mandibularis (Szabo 1909) [=Epitritus mandibularis, *Miccostruma mandibularis] B83
    |    |--S. marginata (Santschi 1914) [=Epitritus marginatus, Miccostruma marginata] B83
    |    |--S. mekaha Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. minkara Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. ninda Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. nykara Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. ornata B83
    |    |--S. oxysma Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. pergrandei (Emery 1895) [=Strumigenys pergrandei, Sm. (*Wessonistruma) pergrandei] B83
    |    |--S. placora Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. rostrata B83
    |    |--S. rusta Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. sharra Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. synkara Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. tacta Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. terroni Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. tigrilla (Brown 1973) [=Miccostruma tigrilla] B83
    |    |--S. tolomyia Bolton 1983 B83
    |    |--S. transversa (Santschi 1913) [=Strumigenys transversa] B83
    |    |--S. truncatidens Brown 1950 B83
    |    |--S. vodensa Bolton 1983 B83
    |    `--S. weberi Brown 1959 B83
    `--Strumigenys Smith 1860 FT08 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: *S. mandibularis Smith 1860 B83
         |         S. adrasora Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. arnoldi Forel 1913 B83
         |         S. bernardi Brown 1960 B83
         |         S. bitheria Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. bryanti N-ZLI11
         |         S. cacaoensis Bolton 1971 B83
         |         S. dextra Brown 1954 B83
         |         S. dromoshaula Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. dyshaula Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. eggersi WW90
         |         S. emmae (Emery 1890) FT08 (see below for synonymy)
         |         S. ettillax Bolton 1983 B83
         |         ‘Quadristruma’ eurycera [=Epitritus eurycerus] B83
         |         S. faurei Arnold 1948 B83
         |         S. feae Emery 1894 B03
         |         S. godeffroyi Mayr 1866 FT08
         |         S. gundlachi WW90
         |         S. hastyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. havilandi Forel 1905 B83
         |         S. helytruga Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. irrorata Santschi 1913 B83
         |         S. katapelta Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. koningsbergeri N-ZLI11
         |         S. korahyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. labidogenys N-ZLI11
         |         S. lewisi Cam. 1887 B03
         |         S. londianensis (Patrizi 1946) [=*Proscopomyrmex londianensis] B83
         |         S. loriae [incl. *Eneria excisa Donisthorpe 1948] B83
         |         S. lyroessa (Roger 1862) [=*Labidogenys lyroessa] B83
         |         S. marleyi Arnold 1914 [=S. havilandi race marleyi] B83
         |         S. mesahyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. murshila Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. nimbrata Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. omalyx Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. pallestes Bolton 1971 B83
         |         S. paranax Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. perplexa H09
         |         S. petiolata Bernard 1952 B83
         |         S. pretoriae Arnold 1949 B83
         |         S. quinquedentata H09
         |         S. relahyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. rogeri Emery 1890 [incl. S. incisa Godfrey 1907, S. sulfurea Santschi 1915] B83
         |         S. rufobrunea Santschi 1914 B83
         |         S. rukha Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. sarissa Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. scotti Forel 1912 B83
         |         S. shaula Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. signaea N-ZLI11
         |         S. silvestrii WW90
         |         S. smythiesi Forel 1902 B03
         |         S. spathoda Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. stygia Santschi 1913 B83
         |         S. tetraphanes Brown 1954 B83
         |         S. totyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. traegaordhi Santschi 1913 B83
         |         S. vazerka Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. xenohyla Bolton 1983 B83
         |         S. xenos A71
         |         S. zandala Bolton 1983 B83
         |--S. propiciens SB08
         `--+--S. dicomas SB08
            `--Pyramica Roger 1862 SB08, FT08 [incl. Trichoscapa Emery 1869 B83]
                 |--*P. gundlachi Roger 1862 B83
                 |--P. hoplites BS06
                 |--P. jacobsoni N-ZLI11
                 `--P. membranifera (Emery 1869) FT08 (see below for synonymy)

Pyramica membranifera (Emery 1869) FT08 [=Strumigenys (*Trichoscapa) membranifera FT08, B83, S. (Cephaloxys) membranifera B83; incl. S. (Cephaloxys) foochowensis Wheeler 1928 B83, S. (Cephaloxys) membranifera var. marioni Wheeler 1933 B83, S. membranifera var. santschii Forel 1904 B83, S. (Cephaloxys) silvestriana Wheeler 1928 B83, S. membranifera race simillima Emery 1890 B83, S. (Cephaloxys) vitiensis Mann 1921 B83, S. (Cephaloxys) membranifera var. williamsi B83]

Serrastruma ludovici (Forel 1904) [=Strumigenys ludovici; incl. St. alluaudi Santschi 1910, Serrastruma alluaudi, St. (Cephaloxys) escherichi lotti Weber 1943, Se. lotti, St. (Trichoscapa) alluaudi st. nigeriensis Santschi 1914, St. rothkirchi Wasmann 1918] B83

Serrastruma lujae (Forel 1902) [=Strumigenys lujae; incl. St. (Cephaloxys) aequalis Menozzi 1942, St. (Xephaloxys [l. c.]) bequaerti Santschi 1923, Serrastruma bequaerti, St. (Cephaloxys) calypso Santschi 1923, Se. calypso, St. (Cephaloxys) gerardi Santschi 1923, St. (Cephaloxys) glanduscula Santschi 1919, St. reticulata Stitz 1910] B83

Serrastruma maynei (Forel 1916) [=Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) maynei; incl. St. (T.) maynei var. latiuscula Forel 1916] B83

Serrastruma serrula (Santschi 1910) [=Strumigenys lujae var. serrula; incl. St. (Cephaloxys) uelensis Santschi 1923] B83

*Serrastruma simoni (Emery 1895) [=Strumigenys simoni, Smithistruma (*Serrastruma) simoni; incl. St. biconvexa Santschi 1913, St. cognata st. boerorum Santschi 1913, St. escherichi var. cliens Forel 1913, St. cognata Santschi 1910, St. escherichi Forel 1910, St. (Trichoscapa) escherichi st. cognata var. fusciventris Santschi 1915 (nom. inv.), St. escherichi race limbata Forel 1913, St. (T.) escherichi st. cognata var. obscuriventris Santschi 1914 (nom. inv.), St. (Cephaloxys) raymondi Donisthorpe 1945] B83

Smithistruma Brown 1948 [incl. Cephaloxys Smith 1865 non Signoret 1847, Miccostruma Brown 1948, Platystruma Brown 1953, Weberistruma Brown 1948, Wessonistruma Brown 1948] B83

Strumigenys Smith 1860 FT08 [incl. Eneria Donisthorpe 1948 B83, Labidogenys Roger 1862 B83, Proscopomyrmex Patrizi 1946 B83, Quadristruma Brown 1949 B83]

Strumigenys emmae (Emery 1890) FT08 [=Epitritus emmae B83, *Quadristruma emmae B83, FT08; incl. E. clypeatus Szabo 1909 B83, E. clypeatus var. malesiana Forel 1913 B83, E. wheeleri Donisthorpe 1916 B83]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[SB08] Schultz, T. R. & S. G. Brady. 2008. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (14): 5435–5440.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

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