Snowy woodrush Luzula nivea, photographed by Sten Porse.

Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Juncus section Genuini, Juncus section Poiophylli, Juncus section Septati.

The Juncaceae are a family of rushes, grass-like plants found mostly in damper habitats in temperate parts of the world (as well as tropical mountains).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Annual or perennial plants, tufted and grass-like, or with sympodial rhizome. Stems usually simple, erect. Leaves mostly clustered at base of stem, glabrous or sparsely hairy, sheathing at base, laminae flat and grass-like, or laterally compressed, or channelled, or terete like stems, or leaves reduced to basal sheaths only. Flowers bisexual, or rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, few to numerous in terminal monochasial cymes, occasionally condensed to a compact head, or flowers rarely solitary. Tepals 6, rarely 4, in two whorls, glumaceous, often with membranous margins. Stamens free, in two whorls of three, or with inner whorl missing, or variable 3-6, attached to base of tepals; filaments free, anthers two-celled, introrse, basifixed. Ovary superior, syncarpous, 1- or more or less completely 3-locular; style 1, short, stigmas 3, brush-like. Fruit a three-valved capsule opening loculicidally. Seeds 3 to numerous, often tailed at one or both ends, or tailless, sometimes mucilaginous.

    |--Distichia YY22
    |--Oxychloe YY22
    |--Patosia YY22
    |--Rostkovia HE80
    |--Marsippospermum HE80
    |    |--M. gracile Al27
    |    `--M. grandiflorum CL85
    |--Luzula DS04
    |    |--L. acuminata DS04
    |    |--L. antarctica D03
    |    |--L. banksiana Meyer 1849 HE80 [=L. campestris var. banksiana Gi60]
    |    |    |--L. b. var. banksiana HE80
    |    |    |--L. b. var. acra HE80
    |    |    |--L. b. var. migrata HE80
    |    |    |--L. b. var. orina HE80
    |    |    `--L. b. var. rhadina HE80
    |    |--L. campestris (Linnaeus) de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805 HE80
    |    |--L. celata Edgar 1966 HE80
    |    |--L. cheesemanii Al27
    |    |--L. colensoi Hooker 1864 HE80
    |    |--L. congesta (Thuillier) Lejeune 1811 HE80
    |    |--L. crenulata Buchenau 1898 HE80
    |    |--L. crinita Hooker 1844 HE80
    |    |--L. decipiens Edgar 1975 HE80
    |    |--L. flaccida (Buchenau) Edgar 1975 HE80
    |    |--L. glabrata C55b
    |    |--L. leptophylla Buchenau & Petrie 1898 HE80
    |    |--L. meridionalis GK00
    |    |--L. multiflora (Retzius) Lejeune 1811 [=L. campestris var. multiflora] HE80
    |    |--L. nivea C55b
    |    |--L. oligantha O88
    |    |--L. picta Richard 1832 HE80
    |    |    |--L. p. var. picta HE80
    |    |    |--L. p. var. limosa HE80
    |    |    `--L. p. var. pallida HE80
    |    |--L. pilosa [incl. L. vernalis] C55a
    |    |--L. pumila Hooker 1864 HE80
    |    |--L. racemosa An27
    |    |--L. rufa Edgar 1966 HE80
    |    |    |--L. r. var. rufa HE80
    |    |    `--L. r. var. albicomans HE80
    |    |--L. traversii (Buchenau) Cheeseman 1925 HE80
    |    |    |--L. t. var. traversii HE80
    |    |    `--L. t. var. tenuis HE80
    |    `--L. ulophylla (Buchenau) Cockayne & Laing 1911 HE80
    `--Juncus DS04
         |  i. s.: J. allioides O88
         |         J. bhutanensis O88
         |         J. brachystigma O88
         |         J. cephalostigma O88
         |         J. concinnus O88
         |         J. grisebachii O88
         |         J. himalensis O88
         |         J. kingii O88
         |         J. kraussii SM06
         |         J. lamprocarpus CA27
         |         J. lesueurii D03
         |         J. leucanthus O88
         |         J. leucomelas O88
         |         J. minimus O88
         |         J. polyanthemos An27
         |         J. pseudocastaneus O88
         |         J. radula GK00
         |         J. roemerianus E99
         |         J. sikkimensis O88
         |           |--J. s. var. sikkimensis O88
         |           `--J. s. var. monocephalus O88
         |         J. sphacelatus O88
         |         J. stipulatus D03
         |         J. thomsonii O88
         |         J. triglumis O88
         |         J. uniflorus O88
         |         J. vaginatus Gu60
         |--J. sect. Genuini HE80
         |--J. sect. Graminifolii HE80
         |    |--J. antarcticus Hooker 1844 HE80
         |    |--J. caespiticus Meyer in Lehmann 1846 HE80
         |    |--J. capitatus Weigel 1772 HE80
         |    |--J. dregeanus Kunth 1841 HE80
         |    |--J. lomatophyllus Sprengel 1821 HE80
         |    `--J. planifolius Brown 1810 HE80
         |         |--J. p. var. planifolius D03
         |         `--J. p. var. demissus D03
         |--J. sect. Poiophylli HE80
         |--J. sect. Septati HE80
         `--J. sect. Thalassii HE80
              |--J. acutus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
              `--J. maritimus de Lamarck 1789 HE80
                   |--J. m. var. maritimus HE80
                   `--J. m. var. australiensis Buchenau 1890 HE80

*Type species of generic name indicated


[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311-319.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[Gi60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405-424.

[Gu60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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