Small-leaved limes Tilia cordata, copyright Waugsberg.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.

The Tilioideae are a group of trees and shrubs from northern temperate regions and Central America. Species of the genus Tilia, the limes or linden trees, are large, deciduous trees with heart-shaped leaves. A number of species are grown as ornamentals or shade trees, and for their light and easily worked wood. Entelea arborescens, whau, is a small tree with dry, spinose fruit capsules endemic to New Zealand that has historically been included in this group.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Stachyose, raffinose present; some species with siliceous leaves; petiole bundle annular, with medullary phloem strands and inverted bundles; leaves distichous, horizontally conduplicate; calyx free; androecium free, staminodia and stamens antepetalous, antesepalous sector empty; gynoecium opposite sepals; outer integument 3-4 cells across, inner integument 4-5 cells across, postament present; cotyledons folded; n = 41.

<==Tilioideae [Tiliaceae, Tiliales] BAN98
    |--Althoffia YY22
    |--Asterophorum YY22
    |--Carpodiptera YY22
    |--Vasivaea YY22
    |--Clappertonia ficifolia [=Honckenya ficifolia] P88
    |--Craigia yunnanensis BAN98
    |--Mollia Martius 1824 D24
    |--Etheridgea subglobosa von Ettingshausen 1893 CBH93
    |--Tiliaephyllum dubium Newberry 1895 CBH93
    |--Willisia CBH93
    |--Discoidites borneensis Muller 1970 CBH93
    |--Intratriporopollenites instructus Mai 1961 CBH93
    |--Trichocarpus Schreb. 1789 KC01
    |--Trichospermum Blume 1825 KC01
    |    `--T. pleiostigma B00
    |--Entelea Br. 1814 A61
    |    `--E. arborescens Br. 1824 [incl. Apeiba australis Rich. 1832] A61
    |--Luehea C96
    |    |--L. divaricata C96
    |    |--L. seemannii C96
    |    `--L. speciosa C96
    `--Tilia H03
         |--T. americana H03
         |--T. argentea F63
         |--T. cordata RB05
         |--T. europaea BAN98
         |--T. glabra Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. grandifolia C55
         |--T. heterophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. miqueliana LO98
         |--T. mycrophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. platyphyllos Ventenat 1800 V00
         |    |--T. p. var. platyphyllos V00
         |    `--T. p. var. corralina V00
         |--T. pubescens [incl. T. caroliniana] V00
         |    |--T. p. var. pubescens V00
         |    `--T. p. var. leptophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         `--T. rotundifolia Ventenat 1800 [incl. T. alba, T. argentea] V00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C96] Clark, W. E. 1996. New species in the Anthonomus salvini group (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Anthonomini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 267–273.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[F63] Farkas, H. K. 1963. On the eriophyids from Hungary. IV. The description of new species (Acari, Eriophyidae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (3–4): 237–270.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765–772.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB05] Ruczyński, I., & W. Bogdanowicz. 2005. Roost cavity selection by Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, eastern Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 921–930.

[V00] Ventenat, C. 1800. Extrait d'une monographie du genre tilleul. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (35): 83–84.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 25 July 2021.

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