Tetranychinae

Oriental red mites Eutetranychus orientalis, from here.


Belongs within: Tetranychoidea.
Contains: Eotetranychus, Tetranychus, Oligonychus.

The Tetranychinae are a group of spider mites characterised by the absence of tenent hairs on the empodium, or the absence of the empodium itself (Baker & Tuttle 1972). Within tetranychines, closely associated duplex setae are present on the first two leg tarsi of the Tetranychini and Tenuipalpoidini but these setae are often absent or disassociated in the Eurytetranychini. In Tenuipalpoidini, seta D4 is in a marginal position on the body or absent; this seta is in a more typical, more medial position in Tetranychini. In most genera of Tetranychinae, females possess two pairs of anal setae and males possess four pairs of genitoanal setae, but one less pair of these setae is present in each sex of the genera Aponychus and Palmanychus (Baker & Tuttle 1972). The oriental red mite or citrus brown mite Eutetranychus orientalis feeds on a wide range of host plant species and is a major pest on citrus.

<==Tetranychinae GB91
    |--Tenuipalpoides Reck & Begdasarian 1955 [Tenuipalpoidini] BT72
    |    |--*T. zizyphus BT72
    |    `--T. dorychaeta Pritchard & Baker 1955 BT72
    |--Eurytetranychini BT72
    |    |--Eurytetranychus buxi GB91
    |    |--Eotetranychus BT72
    |    |--Palmanychus Baker & Tuttle 1972 BT72
    |    |    `--*P. steganus (Pritchard & Baker 1955) [=Eotetranychus steganus] BT72
    |    |--Aponychus Rimando 1966 BT72
    |    |    `--A. corpuzae S91
    |    `--Eutetranychus Banks 1917 BT72
    |         |--*E. banksi (McGregor 1914) [=Tetranychus banksi, Neotetranychus (*Eutetranychus) banksi] BT72
    |         |--E. acaciae Miller 1966 H98
    |         |--E. africanus (Tucker 1926) [=Anychus africanus] BP60
    |         |--E. anneckei YM91
    |         |--E. apheles Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
    |         |--E. bredini Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
    |         |--E. clastus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
    |         |--E. cratis Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
    |         |--E. enodes Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
    |         |--E. hirsti CBM99
    |         |--E. orientalis (Klein 1936) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. pantopus (Berlese 1910) [=Tetranychus pantopus] BP60
    |         `--E. sudanicus BY99
    `--Tetranychini CF77
         |  i. s.: Heteronychus hirtus CF77
         |         Schizotetranychus Träghårdh 1915 WP99, SB63 [incl. Stigmaeopsis WL09]
         |           |--S. andropogoni G01
         |           |--S. asparagi AL37
         |           |--S. avetjanae BP60
         |           |--S. baltazarae C-R02
         |           |--S. cajani G01
         |           |--S. celarius (Banks 1917) [=Stigmaeopsis celarius] H98
         |           |--S. cercidiphylli S91
         |           |--S. cornus Pritchard & Baker 1955 SL71
         |           |--S. eremophilus W87
         |           |--S. gahniae Davis 1969 H98
         |           |--S. gausus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
         |           |--S. hindustanicus G91
         |           |--S. kaspari Manson 1967 SL71
         |           |--S. leguminosus S91
         |           |--S. levinensis Manson 1967 SL71
         |           |--S. longus WP99
         |           |--S. miscanthi WP99
         |           |--S. nanjingensis H07
         |           |--S. oryzae MF07
         |           |--S. reticulatus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
         |           |--S. rhodanus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
         |           |--S. russeus Davis 1969 H98
         |           |--S. saccharum MF07
         |           |--S. sacrales Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
         |           |--S. sagatus Davis 1969 H98
         |           |--S. schizopus (Zacher 1913) [=Tetranychus schizopus] SB63
         |           |--S. spiculus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
         |           `--S. spireafolia BP60
         |--+--‘Oligonychus’ gossypii (Zacher 1921) NG96, BP60 [=Paratetranychus gossypii BP60]
         |  `--+--Tetranychus NG96
         |     `--Amphitetranychus Oudemans 1931 NG96
         |          `--A. viennensis (Zacher 1920) NG96, H23 [=Tetranychus viennensis NG96]
         `--+--Panonychus Yokoyama 1929 NG96, BP60
            |    |--P. akitanus S91
            |    |--P. bambusicola GKO96
            |    |--P. citri (McGregor 1916) [=Tetranychus citri, Metatetranychus citri] H98
            |    |--P. elongatus Manson 1963 H98
            |    |--P. mori WL09
            |    |--P. thelytokus WL09
            |    `--P. ulmi (Koch 1836) [=Tetranychus ulmi, Metatetranychus ulmi] H98
            `--+--Oligonychus NG96
               `--Mononychellus NG96
                    |--M. caribbeanae GB91
                    |--M. erytrinae QA91
                    |--M. estradai AP80
                    |--M. planki MF07
                    `--M. tanajoa (Bondar 1938) BY99 (see below for synonymy)

Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein 1936) H98 [=Anychus orientalis H98; incl. E. monodi André 1954 BP60, A. ricini Rahman & Sapra 1940 BP60]

Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar 1938) BY99 [=Tetranychus tanajoa BY99; incl. M. estradai GB91, M. progressivus Doreste 1981 M99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[AP80] Andrews, K. L., & S. L. Poe. 1980. Spider mites of El Salvador, Central America (Acari: Tetranychidae). Florida Entomologist 63 (4): 502–505.

[BP60] Baker, E. W., & A. E. Pritchard. 1960. The tetranychoid mites of Africa. Hilgardia 29 (11): 455–574.

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BY99] Bakker, F. M., & J. S. Yaninek. 1999. Mite pests in tropical agriculture. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 255–263. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[CBM99] ChannaBasavanna, G. P., & B. Mallik. 1999. Impact of mite pests on agriculture in India. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 293–295. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137–154.

[GKO96] Gotoh, T., T. Kamoto & H. Oku. 1996. Termination of embryonic diapause by physical and chemical stimuli in the spider mite Panonychus bambusicola Ghora and Gotoh (Tetranychidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 667–669. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[G91] Gupta, S. K. 1991. The mites of agricultural importance in India with remarks on their economic status. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 509–522. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GB91] Gutierrez, J., H. R. Bolland, J. Etienne & D. Cotton. 1991. Deuterotoky in Mononychellus caribbeanae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cassava in Guadeloupe. Karyotype and preliminary biological data. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 443–447. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H23] Hirst, S. 1923. On some new or little-known species of Acari. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923: 971–1000.

[H07] Ho, C.-C. 2007. Crop mite pests of southeast Asia and tropical far east. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 259–266. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M99] Moraes, G. J. de. 1999. Pest status of the cassava green mite in Brazil and strategies for its control. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 287–291. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[MF07] Moraes, G. J. de, & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites of tropical crops in eastern South America. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 279–288. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[NG96] Navajas, M., & J. Gutierrez. 1996. Molecular phylogeny in spider mites (Tetranychidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 305–308. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[QA91] Quintero, M. T., & H. A. Acevedo. 1991. Mites of fermented liquid foods in Mexico. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 611–614. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S91] Sabelis, M. W. 1991. Life-history evolution of spider mites. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 23–49. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[W87] Walter, D. E. 1987. Belowground arthropods of semiarid grasslands. In: J. L. Capinera (ed.) Integrated Pest Management on Rangeland: A shortgrass prairie perspective pp. 271–290. Westview Press, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado).

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YM91] Yaninek, J. S., & G. J. de Moraes. 1991. A synopsis of classical biological control of mites in agriculture. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 133–149. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Last updated: 9 May 2021.

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