Limnadia lenticularis, from Sars (1896).

Belongs within: Diplostraca.

The Spinicaudata are a group of clam shrimps characterised by the formation of clasps on the first and second pair of thoracopods of the males. In members of the modern family Limnadiidae, the antennules are two-segmented and the head bears an unpaired, often pedunculate frontal organ.

    |  i. s.: Caenestheria dictyon TDC06
    |         Caenestheriella TDC06
    |           |--C. mariae T06
    |           `--C. packardi T06
    |         Eocyzicus TDC06
    |--Leptestheria T06 [Leptestheriidae WZK06]
    |    `--L. compleximanus T06
    |--Estheriellidae [Estherielloidea] BWW93
    |    |--Anomalonema Raymond 1946 BWW93
    |    |--Estheriella camerouni Defretin 1953 BWW93
    |    `--Afrograpta tricostata (Defretin 1953) BWW93
    |--Cyzicoidea G88
    |    |--Cyzicus Audouin 1837 [Cyzicidae] BWW93
    |    |--Glyptoasmussiidae G88
    |    `--Asmussia Pacht 1849 [Asmussiidae] BWW93
    |         `--A. membranacea Pacht 1849 BWW93
    |--Vertexioidea BWW93
    |    |--Pemphilimnadiopsis [Pemphilimnadiopsidae] BWW93
    |    |    `--P. ortoni (Clarke 1900) BWW93
    |    |--Ipsiloniidae BWW93
    |    |    |--Ipsilonia auriculata Novozhilov 1953 BWW93
    |    |    `--Aculestheria novojilovi Cardosa 1963 BWW93
    |    `--Vertexiidae BWW93
    |         |--Echinestheria marimbensis Marlière 1950 BWW93
    |         `--Cornia Lyutkevich 1937 BWW93
    |              `--*C. papillaria Lutkevich 1939 BB61
    |--Leaiidae [Leaioidea] BWW93
    |    |--Praeleaia quadricarinata Lyutkevich 1929 BWW93
    |    |--Pteroleaia canadensis Copeland 1962 BWW93
    |    |--Japanoleaia rectangula (Yokohama 1894) BWW93
    |    `--Leaia SC17
    |         |--L. chinensis SC17
    |         |--L. collinsi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. compta Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. elliptica Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. latissima Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. oblongata Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. paraleidyi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         |--L. pincombei Mitchell 1925 F71
    |         `--L. quadrata Mitchell 1925 F71
    `--Limnadiidae [Limnadioidea, Limnadopsidae] WZK06
         |--Imnadia [Imnadiidae] WZK06
         |--Limnadopsium WZK06
         |--Limnestheria ardra Wright 1920 BWW93
         |--Palaeolimnadiopsis Raymond 1946 BWW93
         |--Belgolimnadiopsis Novozhilov 1958 BWW93
         |--Metalimnadia [Metalimnadiidae, Paraimnadiidae] WZK06
         |    `--M. serratura [incl. Paraimnadia guayanensis] MD01
         |--Limnetis D01
         |    |--L. mucronatus D01
         |    `--L. zichyi Daday 1901 D01
         |--Limnadopsis WZK06
         |    |--L. birchii TDC06
         |    |--L. pilbarensis GMD11
         |    `--L. tatei Spencer & Hall 1896 WZK06
         |--Eulimnadia WZK06
         |    |--E. dahli Sars 1896 WZK06
         |    |--E. feriensis Dakin 1914 WZK06
         |    `--E. texana WZK06
         `--Limnadia WZK06
              |--L. badia Wolf 1911 WZK06
              |--L. lenticularis WZK06
              |--L. sordida King 1855 WZK06
              |--L. stanleyana King 1855 WZK06
              `--L. urukhai Webb & Bell 1979 T06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GMD11] George, A. S., N. L. McKenzie & P. Doughty. 2011. A Biodiversity Survey of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1).

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[SC17] Schwentner, M., D. J. Combosch, J. P. Nelson & G. Giribet. 2017. A phylogenomic solution to the origin of insects by resolving crustacean-hexapod relationships. Current Biology 27: 1818–1824.

[T06] Timms, B. V. 2006. The large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of gnammas (rock holes) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 163–173.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WZK06] Weeks, S. C., M. Zofkova & B. Knott. 2006. Limnadiid clam shrimp distribution in Australia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 155–161.

Last updated: 7 March 2022.

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