Megaphyllum unilineatum, copyright Zdeněk Hyan.

Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Cylindroiulus, Leptoiulus, Julus.

The Julida are a group of millipedes with pleura fused with terga, and a gnathochilarium with meeting stipes. Members of the families Paeromopodidae and Julidae bear distinct, fine longitudinal striation all around the metazonal segments; members of other families have such striation absent or on the lower sides of the segments only (Hoffman 1990).

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Gnathochilarium with stipes broadly in contact medially, with small promental sclerite isolated in front of median commissure and larger transverse mental plate (or two plates) at base; sterna, pleura, and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, with pleural sclerites completely coalesced with lower ends of terga, no suture line remaining; segment 3 without legs.

<==Julida [Symphyognatha, Zygocheta]
    |  i. s.: Tachypodoiulus [incl. Ischiolobus Attems 1951] TKM93
    |           `--T. niger (Leach 1815) [incl. *Ischiolobus niger Attems 1951] TKM93
    |--Paeromopodidae [Californiulidae] H90
    |    |--Paeromopus H90
    |    |--Californiulus H90
    |    `--Aprosphylosoma H90
    |--Nemasomatidae MG00
    |    |--Telsonemasoma H90
    |    |--Thalassisobates littoralis KAA-W00
    |    |--Nemasoma varicorne Koch 1847 TKM93 [=Isobates varicornis KAA-W00]
    |    |--Chelojulus Enghoff 1982 H00
    |    |    `--C. sculpturatus WA04
    |    `--Orinisobates Lohmander 1933 MG00
    |         |--O. microthylax Enghoff 1985 MG00
    |         `--O. sibiricus (Gulička 1963) [=Isobates sibiricus] MG00
    |--Blaniulidae [Isobatidae] TKM93
    |    |  i. s.: Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais 1847) KAA-W00
    |    |         Proteroiulus KAA-W00
    |    |           |--P. fuscus (Am Stein 1857) [=Blaniulus fuscus] TKM93
    |    |           `--P. varicornis KAA-W00
    |    |         Blaniulus TKM93
    |    |           |--B. guttulatus (Fabricius 1798) TKM93
    |    |           `--B. venustus A01
    |    |         Skleroprotopus Attems 1901 [Isobatini, Protoiulidae] A01
    |    |           `--*S. confucius Attems 1901 A01
    |    |--+--Virgoiulus H90
    |    |  `--Okeanobates H90
    |    `--Zosteractinidae H90
    |         |--Zosteractis H90
    |         `--Ameractis H90
    |--Parajulidae H90
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Julus’ telluster Scudder 1878 RB93
    |    |--Aliulus H90
    |    |--Aniulus bollmani KAA-W00
    |    |--Arvechambus H90
    |    |--Ethojulus H90
    |    |--Gyniulus H90
    |    |--Hakiulus H90
    |    |--Illiulus H90
    |    |--Okliulus H90
    |    |--Oriulus H90
    |    |--Pseudojulus H90
    |    |--Ptyoiulus H90
    |    |--Teniulus H90
    |    |--Uroblaniulus H90
    |    |--Apacheiulus H90
    |    |--Gosiulus H90
    |    |--Codiulus H90
    |    |--Bollmaniulus H90
    |    |--Karteroiulus H90
    |    |--Mulaikiulus H90
    |    |--Saiulus H90
    |    |--Simiulus H90
    |    `--Spathiulus H90
    `--Julidae KAA-W00
         |--Brachyiulus pusillus KAA-W00
         |--Allajulus nitidus (Verhoeff 1891) H90, TKM93 [=Cylindroiulus nitidus KAA-W00]
         |--Cylindroiulus MG00
         |--Hypsoiulus alpivagus (Verhoeff 1897) TKM93
         |--Leptoiulus TKM93
         |--Pachypodoiulus eurypus (Attems 1895) TKM93
         |--Unciger foetidus (Koch 1838) TKM93
         |--Pachyiulus fuscipes A01
         |--Glyphiulus granulatus A01
         |--Julus KAA-W00
         |--Leptophyllum (Anuroleptophyllum Attems 1901) A01
         |    `--L. (*A.) caucasicum Attems 1901 A01
         |--Pacifiiulus Mikhaljova 1982 MG00
         |    `--P. amurensis (Gerstfeldt 1859) [incl. P. imbricatus] MG00
         |--Ommatoiulus TKM93
         |    |--O. moreletti DAF07
         |    `--O. sabulosus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Schizophyllum sabulosum] TKM93
         |--Enantiulus TKM93
         |    |--E. nanus (Latzel 1884) [=Julus nanus, Leptophyllum nanum, Metaleptophyllum nanum] TKM93
         |    `--E. pelidnus (Latzel 1884) TKM93
         |--Ophyiulus KAA-W00
         |    |--O. nigrofuscus (Verhoeff 1894) TKM93
         |    |--O. pilosus (Newport 1842) TKM93
         |    `--‘Iulus (*Leucoiulus)’ tirolensis Verhoeff 1894 (n. d.) TKM93
         |--Sibiriulus Gulička 1972 MG00
         |    |--S. altaicus (Gulička 1972) [=Cylindroiulus (Sibiriulus) altaicus] MG00
         |    |--S. dentiger (Gulička 1963) [=Cylindroiulus (Sibiriulus) dentiger] MG00
         |    `--S. multinicus Mikhaljova in Mikhaljova & Golovatch 2000 MG00
         `--Megaphyllum Verhoeff 1894 MG00
              |--M. austriacum (Latzel 1884) [=Julus austriacus] TKM93
              |--M. projectum (Verhoeff 1894) [=Chromatoiulus projectus] TKM93
              |--M. sjaelandicum (Meinert 1868) MG00
              `--M. unilineatum (Koch 1838) [=Chromatoiulus unilineatus] TKM93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DAF07] Department of Agriculture and Food. 2007. Common Seasonal Pests. State of Western Australia.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl.): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[MG00] Mikhaljova, E. V., & S. I. Golovatch. 2000. A review of the millipede fauna of Siberia (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 103–118.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

Last updated: 10 June 2022.

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