Byttneria aculeata, copyright Heike Vibrans.

Belongs within: Malvales.
Contains: Rulingia, Malacothamnus, Sidalcea, Sida, Sphaeralcea, Bombacoideae, Malvoideae, Sterculioideae, Tilioideae, Dombeyoideae, Helicteroideae, Corchorus, Triumfetta, Grewia, Hermannia, Lasiopetalum.

The Malvaceae as used here in the broad sense is an assemblage of plants previously divided between the families Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae; polyphyly of the latter three families has lead to their inclusion in the first. Molecular data support a basal division of the Malvaceae sensu lato between Byttneriina, including taxa previously assigned to Sterculiaceae (Byttnerioideae) and Tiliaceae (Grewioideae), and Malvadendrina, including taxa previously assigned to all four original families (Baum et al. 1998). The Byttnerioideae, including the largest portion of the historical Sterculiaceae, are characterised by perfect, actinomorphic, pentamerous flowers with stamens in multiples of five and opposite the petals.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Shrubs to trees (occasionally herbs); cyclopropenoid fatty acids, terpenoid-based quinones present, gums common; wood commonly fluoresces; pits not vestured; tile cells common; sieve tubes with non-dispersive protein bodies; hairs stellate/lepidote; leaves spiral or two-ranked, lamina vernation usually conduplicate(to plicate), margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units ["bicolor units"]; calyx valvate; stamens (5-)many, in five groups opposite the petals, but fundamentally obdiplostemonous, basally connate, extrorse; tapetal cells 2(-4)-nucleate; gynoecium variable in orientation, style usually 5-branched apically, stigma usually dry; ovules 1-many carpel; micropyle zig-zag (endo- or exostomal), outer integument develops first, 2-4(-7) cells across, inner integument 2-7(-10) cells across, parietal tissue 3-8 cells, across, nucellar cap 2-5 cells across, hypostase present, obturator present or absent; inverse postament present; fruit a capsule (berry, schizocarp, etc.; muricate); testa multiplicative, vascularized, endotesta crystalliferous, tegmen multiplicative, endotegmic cells more or less thickened; endosperm often starchy, embryo often green; sporophytic self-incompatibility system often present.

<==Malvaceae [Bombacaceae, Eumalvales, Malvineae, Sterculiaceae, Sterculiineae]
    |--Malvadendrina BAN98
    |    |--Malvatheca BS04
    |    |    |--+--Bombacoideae BS04
    |    |    |  `--Malvoideae BS04
    |    |    `--+--Patinoa almirajo BS04, BAN98
    |    |       `--Ochroma BS04
    |    |            |--O. lagopus K06
    |    |            `--O. pyramidale BAN98
    |    `--+--Sterculioideae BS04
    |       `--+--+--Tilioideae BS04
    |          |  `--Dombeyoideae BS04
    |          `--+--Helicteroideae BS04
    |             `--Brownlowioideae BAN98
    |                  |--Mortoniodendron BAN98
    |                  `--+--Berrya [Berryeae] BAN98
    |                     |--Brownlowia [Brownlowieae] BS04
    |                     |    `--B. elata BAN98
    |                     |--Christiana BAN98
    |                     `--Jarandersonia BAN98
    `--Byttneriina [Byttneriaceae] BAN98
         |  i. s.: Oudemansia Miq. 1854 KC01
         |--Grewioideae BAN98
         |    |--Corchorus BAN98
         |    |--Sparmannia africana BAN98
         |    |--Triumfetta BAN98
         |    |--Grewia BAN98
         |    `--Heliocarpus BAN98
         |         |--H. americanus BAN98
         |         `--H. tomentosus BT87
         `--Byttnerioideae BAN98
              |--Hermannia BAN98
              |--Kleinhovia hospita BAN98, Cl78
              |--Leptonychia BAN98
              |--Lasiopetalum BAN98
              |--Theobroma [Theobromeae] BAN98
              |    |--T. bicolor BW64
              |    `--T. cacao BAN98
              `--Byttneria BAN98
                   |--*B. scabra BAN98
                   |--B. aculeata F09
                   |--B. carthaginensis RS99
                   `--B. herbacea P03

Malvaceae incertae sedis:
  Melochia D01
    |--M. corchorifolia LK14
    |--M. pyramidata LK14
    `--M. umbellata LK14
  Argyrodendron B00a
    |--A. peralatum W01
    `--A. trifoliolatum B00a [=Heritiera trifoliolata H90]
  Pterygota P02
  Melhania LK14
    |--M. futteyporensis PP07
    |--M. incana C16
    `--M. oblongifolia LK14
  Acropogon YY22
  Basiloxylon YY22
  Dicarpidium monoicum LK14
  Firmiana S02
    |--F. colorata S02
    |--F. malayana P88
    `--F. simplex [incl. Sterculia platanifolia] LO98
  Octolobus YY22
  Pterocymbium YY22
  Tarrietia argyrodendron YY22, H42
  Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832 FT93
  Thomasia RL05
    |--T. cognata RL05
    |--T. foliosa GK00
    |--T. macrocalyx OS04
    |--T. paniculata GK00
    `--T. pauciflora GK00
  Keraudrenia H90
    |--K. corollata H90
    |    |--K. c. var. corollata H90
    |    `--K. c. var. denticulata H90
    |--K. hillii H90
    |--K. integrifolia H90
    `--K. velutina G04
         |--K. v. ssp. velutina G04
         `--K. v. ssp. elliptica G04
  Rulingia GK00
  Commersonia B00b
    |--C. bartramia Cr78
    `--C. fraseri B00b
  Hannafordia H90
    |--H. bissillii H90
    `--H. quadrivalvis KM08
  Malvastrum M99
    |--M. americanum [incl. M. spicatum] H90
    |--M. coromandelianum [incl. M. tricuspidatum] H90
    `--M. dissectum C01
  Ambroma augusta BB07
  Parabombacaceoxylon WM09
  Javelinoxylon WM09
  Abelmoschus M99
    |--A. esculentus M99
    |--A. ficulneus M99
    |--A. manihot H90
    `--A. moschatus LK14
  Fioria vitifolia LK14
  Waltheria LK14
    |--W. americana BTA75
    `--W. indica LK14
  Modiola H93
    |--M. caroliniana H93
    `--M. multifida C06
  Fugosia australis C16
  Eremalche H93
    |--E. exilis [=Malvastrum exile] H93
    |--E. parryi [=Malvastrum parryi] H93
    |    |--E. p. ssp. parryi H93
    |    `--E. p. ssp. kernensis [=Malvastrum kernense] H93
    `--E. rotundifolia [=Malvastrum rotundifolium] H93
  Herissantia crispa [=Abutilon crispum] H93
  Horsfordia H93
    |--H. alata H93
    `--H. newberryi H93
  Iiamna H93
    |--I. bakeri H93
    `--I. latibracteata H93
  Malacothamnus H93
  Malvella leprosa H93 [=Sida leprosa H90; incl. S. leprosa var. hederacea H93]
  Ayenia compacta [incl. A. californica] H93
  Bombacites formosus Berry 1916 CBH93
  Bombacoxylon CBH93
  Hibiscoxylon niloticum Kräusel 1939 CBH93
  Kosteletzkya CBH93
  Echiperiporites estelae CBH93
  Chattawaya paliformis Manchester 1980 CBH93
  Triplochitioxylon oregonensis Manchester 1979 CBH93
  Reevesiapollenites CBH93
  Gilesia biniflora H90
  Seringia arborescens H90
  Gynatrix pulchella [=Plagianthus pulchellus; incl. P. pulchellus var. tomentosus] H90
  Stegia DC. 1805 KC01
  Mansonia altissima S77
  Azanza lampas M72
  Sidalcea PT01
  Cephalohibiscus H03
  Kydia calycina P03
  Napaea YY22
  Anoda RN-F01
    |--A. cristata [incl. A. cristata var. digitata] H93
    |--A. hastata J87
    `--A. parviflora Cavanilles 1799 C99
  Lawrencia G04
    |--L. densiflora KM08
    |--L. glomerata [=Plagianthus glomeratus] H90
    |--L. spicata GK00
    |--L. squamata [=Plagianthus squamatus, Selenothamnus squamatus; incl. P. incanus] H90
    `--L. viridigrisea KM08
  Althea PT01
    |--A. cannabina H91
    |--A. hirsuta PT98
    |--A. officinalis PT01
    `--A. rosea KSM06
  Urena LK14
    |--U. americana [incl. U. reticulata] C55
    |--U. armitiana LK14
    |    |--U. a. var. armitiana LK14
    |    `--U. a. var. spenceri LK14
    `--U. lobata LK14
  Alcea Y98
    |--A. biennis PT98
    `--A. rosea [=Althaea rosea] H93
  Sida G04
  Sphaeralcea J87

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 26 July 2021.

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