Malvaceae

Grewia damine, photographed by J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Malvales.
Contains: Hermannia, Corchorus, Bombacoideae, Malvoideae, Sterculioideae, Helicteroideae, Tiliaceae, Dombeyoideae.

The Malvaceae as used here in the broad sense is an assemblage of plants previously divided between the families Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae; polyphyly of the latter three families has lead to their inclusion in the first (Baum et al. 1998).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Shrubs to trees (occasionally herbs); cyclopropenoid fatty acids, terpenoid-based quinones present, gums common; wood commonly fluoresces; pits not vestured; tile cells common; sieve tubes with non-dispersive protein bodies; hairs stellate/lepidote; leaves spiral or two-ranked, lamina vernation usually conduplicate(to plicate), margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units ["bicolor units"]; calyx valvate; stamens (5-)many, in five groups opposite the petals, but fundamentally obdiplostemonous, basally connate, extrorse; tapetal cells 2(-4)-nucleate; gynoecium variable in orientation, style usually 5-branched apically, stigma usually dry; ovules 1-many carpel; micropyle zig-zag (endo- or exostomal), outer integument develops first, 2-4(-7) cells across, inner integument 2-7(-10) cells across, parietal tissue 3-8 cells, across, nucellar cap 2-5 cells across, hypostase present, obturator present or absent; inverse postament present; fruit a capsule (berry, schizocarp, etc.; muricate); testa multiplicative, vascularized, endotesta crystalliferous, tegmen multiplicative, endotegmic cells more or less thickened; endosperm often starchy, embryo often green; sporophytic self-incompatibility system often present.

<==Malvaceae [Bombacaceae, Eumalvales, Malvineae, Sterculiaceae, Sterculiineae]
    |--Byttneriina [Byttneriaceae] BAN98
    |    |--Byttnerioideae BAN98
    |    |    |--Hermannia BAN98
    |    |    |--Kleinhovia hospita BAN98, Cl78
    |    |    |--Leptonychia BAN98
    |    |    |--Theobroma [Theobromeae] BAN98
    |    |    |    `--T. cacao BAN98
    |    |    |--Byttneria BAN98
    |    |    |    |--*B. scabra BAN98
    |    |    |    |--B. carthaginensis RS99
    |    |    |    `--B. herbacea Pau03
    |    |    `--Lasiopetalum [Lasiopetaleae] BAN98
    |    |         |--L. angustifolium KM08
    |    |         |--L. molle RL05
    |    |         `--L. oppositifolium RL05
    |    `--Grewioideae BAN98
    |         |--Apeiba BAN98
    |         |--Corchorus BAN98
    |         |--Heliocarpus americanus BAN98
    |         |--Sparmannia africana BAN98
    |         |--Grewia [Grewieae] BAN98
    |         |    |--G. asiatica Par03
    |         |    |--G. damine PP07
    |         |    |--G. flavescens Par03
    |         |    |--G. occidentalis BAN98
    |         |    |--G. orientalis KJ05
    |         |    |--G. tenax PP07
    |         |    |--G. tilaefolia S02
    |         |    `--G. villosa PP07
    |         `--Triumfetta BAN98
    |              |--T. lappula C55
    |              |--T. pentandra HK98
    |              |--T. rhomboidea BBO01
    |              `--T. semitriloba J87
    `--Malvadendrina BAN98
         |--Malvatheca BS04
         |    |--+--Bombacoideae BS04
         |    |  `--Malvoideae BS04
         |    `--+--Patinoa almirajo BS04, BAN98
         |       `--Ochroma BS04
         |            |--O. lagopus K06
         |            `--O. pyramidale SWK87
         `--+--Sterculioideae BS04
            `--+--+--Helicteroideae BS04
               |  `--Brownlowioideae BAN98
               |       |--Mortoniodendron BAN98
               |       `--+--Berrya [Berryeae] BAN98
               |          |--Brownlowia elata BS04, BAN98 [Brownlowieae]
               |          |--Christiana BAN98
               |          `--Jarandersonia BAN98
               `--+--Tiliaceae BS04
                  `--Dombeyoideae BS04

Malvaceae incertae sedis:
  Melochia D01
  Argyrodendron peralatum W01
  Pterygota P02
  Melhania futteyporensis PP07
  Acropogon YY22
  Basiloxylon YY22
  Dicarpidium YY22
  Firmiana S02
    |--F. colorata S02
    |--F. malayana P88
    `--F. simplex [incl. Sterculia platanifolia] LO98
  Octolobus YY22
  Pterocymbium YY22
  Tarrietia argyrodendron YY22, H42
  Tetradia YY22
  Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832 FT93
  Thomasia RL05
    |--T. cognata RL05
    |--T. foliosa GK00
    |--T. macrocalyx OS04
    |--T. paniculata GK00
    `--T. pauciflora GK00
  Keraudrenia velutina G04
    |--K. v. ssp. velutina G04
    `--K. v. ssp. elliptica G04
  Rulingia GK00
    |--R. corylifolia GK00
    |--R. kempeana EF04
    `--R. loxophylla SM90
  Commersonia bartramia Cr78
  Hannafordia quadrivalvis KM08
  Malvastrum coromandelianum PP07
  Ambroma augusta BB07
  Hoheria G60
    |--H. angustifolia CA27
    |--H. glabrata C59
    |--H. lyalli B88
    |--H. populnea CA27
    `--H. sexstylosa CA27
  Parabombacaceoxylon WM09
  Javelinoxylon WM09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315-330.

[BS04] Baum, D. A., S. D. Smith, A. Yen, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeler, B. A. Whitlock & R. L. Oldham. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Malvatheca (Bombacoideae and Malvoideae; Malvaceae sensu lato) as inferred from plastid DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 91: 1863-1871.

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

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