Byttneria aculeata, copyright Heike Vibrans.

Belongs within: Malvales.
Contains: Bombacoideae, Malvoideae, Sterculioideae, Tilioideae, Dombeyoideae, Helicteroideae, Corchorus, Triumfetta, Grewia, Hermannia.

The Malvaceae as used here in the broad sense is an assemblage of plants previously divided between the families Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae; polyphyly of the latter three families has lead to their inclusion in the first. Molecular data support a basal division of the Malvaceae sensu lato between Byttneriina, including taxa previously assigned to Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae, and Malvadendrina, including taxa previously assigned to all four original families (Baum et al. 1998).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Shrubs to trees (occasionally herbs); cyclopropenoid fatty acids, terpenoid-based quinones present, gums common; wood commonly fluoresces; pits not vestured; tile cells common; sieve tubes with non-dispersive protein bodies; hairs stellate/lepidote; leaves spiral or two-ranked, lamina vernation usually conduplicate(to plicate), margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units ["bicolor units"]; calyx valvate; stamens (5-)many, in five groups opposite the petals, but fundamentally obdiplostemonous, basally connate, extrorse; tapetal cells 2(-4)-nucleate; gynoecium variable in orientation, style usually 5-branched apically, stigma usually dry; ovules 1-many carpel; micropyle zig-zag (endo- or exostomal), outer integument develops first, 2-4(-7) cells across, inner integument 2-7(-10) cells across, parietal tissue 3-8 cells, across, nucellar cap 2-5 cells across, hypostase present, obturator present or absent; inverse postament present; fruit a capsule (berry, schizocarp, etc.; muricate); testa multiplicative, vascularized, endotesta crystalliferous, tegmen multiplicative, endotegmic cells more or less thickened; endosperm often starchy, embryo often green; sporophytic self-incompatibility system often present.

<==Malvaceae [Bombacaceae, Eumalvales, Malvineae, Sterculiaceae, Sterculiineae]
    |--Malvadendrina BAN98
    |    |--Malvatheca BS04
    |    |    |--+--Bombacoideae BS04
    |    |    |  `--Malvoideae BS04
    |    |    `--+--Patinoa almirajo BS04, BAN98
    |    |       `--Ochroma BS04
    |    |            |--O. lagopus K06
    |    |            `--O. pyramidale BAN98
    |    `--+--Sterculioideae BS04
    |       `--+--+--Tilioideae BS04
    |          |  `--Dombeyoideae BS04
    |          `--+--Helicteroideae BS04
    |             `--Brownlowioideae BAN98
    |                  |--Mortoniodendron BAN98
    |                  `--+--Berrya [Berryeae] BAN98
    |                     |--Brownlowia elata BS04, BAN98 [Brownlowieae]
    |                     |--Christiana BAN98
    |                     `--Jarandersonia BAN98
    `--Byttneriina [Byttneriaceae] BAN98
         |--Grewioideae BAN98
         |    |--Corchorus BAN98
         |    |--Heliocarpus americanus BAN98
         |    |--Sparmannia africana BAN98
         |    |--Triumfetta BAN98
         |    `--Grewia BAN98
         `--Byttnerioideae BAN98
              |--Hermannia BAN98
              |--Kleinhovia hospita BAN98, Cl78
              |--Leptonychia BAN98
              |--Theobroma [Theobromeae] BAN98
              |    `--T. cacao BAN98
              |--Lasiopetalum [Lasiopetaleae] BAN98
              |    |--L. angustifolium KM08
              |    |--L. ferrugineum H87
              |    |--L. molle RL05
              |    `--L. oppositifolium RL05
              `--Byttneria BAN98
                   |--*B. scabra BAN98
                   |--B. aculeata F09
                   |--B. carthaginensis RS99
                   `--B. herbacea P03

Malvaceae incertae sedis:
  Melochia LK14
    |--M. corchorifolia LK14
    |--M. pyramidata LK14
    `--M. umbellata LK14
  Argyrodendron B00a
    |--A. peralatum W01
    `--A. trifoliolatum B00a
  Pterygota P02
  Melhania LK14
    |--M. futteyporensis PP07
    |--M. incana C16
    `--M. oblongifolia LK14
  Acropogon YY22
  Basiloxylon YY22
  Dicarpidium monoicum LK14
  Firmiana S02
    |--F. colorata S02
    |--F. malayana P88
    `--F. simplex [incl. Sterculia platanifolia] LO98
  Octolobus YY22
  Pterocymbium YY22
  Tarrietia argyrodendron YY22, H42
  Tetradia YY22
  Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832 FT93
  Thomasia RL05
    |--T. cognata RL05
    |--T. foliosa GK00
    |--T. macrocalyx OS04
    |--T. paniculata GK00
    `--T. pauciflora GK00
  Keraudrenia velutina G04
    |--K. v. ssp. velutina G04
    `--K. v. ssp. elliptica G04
  Rulingia GK00
    |--R. corylifolia GK00
    |--R. kempeana EF04
    |--R. loxophylla SM90
    `--R. pannosa Z94
  Commersonia B00b
    |--C. bartramia Cr78
    `--C. fraseri B00b
  Hannafordia quadrivalvis KM08
  Malvastrum PP07
    |--M. americanum M99
    `--M. coromandelianum PP07
  Ambroma augusta BB07
  Parabombacaceoxylon WM09
  Javelinoxylon WM09
  Abelmoschus M99
    |--A. esculentus M99
    |--A. ficulneus M99
    `--A. moschatus LK14
  Fioria vitifolia LK14
  Waltheria LK14
    |--W. americana BTA75
    `--W. indica LK14
  Modiola multifida C06
  Fugosia australis C16

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 3 July 2018.

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