Scale-rush Lepyrodia scariosa, copyright John Tann.

Belongs within: Poales.

The Restionaceae are a group of rush-like plants found in southern parts of the world, particularly Africa, Australasia and southeast Asia. Leaves are reduced to sheaths around the photosynthetic stems.

<==Restionaceae [Anarthriaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Farinosae, Restionineae] APG16
    |--Anarthria DS04
    |    |--A. gracilis GK00
    |    |--A. laevis GK00
    |    |--A. polyphylla DS04
    |    |--A. prolifera DS04
    |    `--A. scabra GK00
    `--+--Baloskion tetraphyllum DS04
       `--+--+--Thamnochortus cinereus DS04
          |  `--Elegia DS04
          |       |--E. capensis GPWG01
          |       |--E. fenestrata DS04
          |       `--E. stipularis GPWG01
          `--Lepyrodia DS04
               |--L. caudata D95
               |--L. drummondiana GK00
               |--L. glauca DS04
               |--L. gracilis D95
               |--L. interrupta D95
               |--L. macra GK00
               |--L. muirii GK00
               `--L. scariosa DS04

Restionaceae incertae sedis:
  Leptocarpus Br. 1810 (nom. cons.) ME70
    |--*L. aristatus ME70
    |--L. similis Edgar 1969 [incl. L. simplex var. fasciculatus Hooker 1853] ME70
    |--L. simplex [=Restio simplex] C06
    `--L. tenax GK00
  Phyllocomos YY22
  Askidiosperma YY22
  Cannomois YY22
  Chaetanthus YY22
  Dielsia YY22
  Dovea YY22
  Harperia lateriflora OS04
  Hypodiscus YY22
  Hypolaena OS04
    |--H. exsulca OS04
    `--H. lateriflora A27
  Lepidobolus preissianus OS04
  Onychos YY22
  Restio complanatus BR65
  Staberona YY22
  Willdenowia YY22
  Loxocarya RL05
  Empodisma gracillimum HE80, P05
  Alexgeorgia nitens RL05
  Desmocladus RL05
    |--D. asper OS04
    |--D. fasciculata RL05
    `--D. flexuosa RL05
  Chondropetalum GPWG01
  Apodasmia ceramophila GK00, GKL04
  Meeboldina denmarkica GK00
  Sporadanthus Muell. 1874 ME70
    `--*S. traversii (Muell.) Muell. ex Kirk 1878 [=Lepyrodia traversii Muell. 1873] ME70
  Calorophus Labill. 1806 ME70
    |--*C. elongata ME70
    `--C. minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
  Brizula drummondii GK00
  Aphelia SR07
    |--A. brizula SR07
    `--A. cyperoides GK00
  Gaimardia Gaud. 1825 ME70
    |--*G. australis ME70
    `--G. setacea Hook. f. 1853 ME70
  Centrolepis Labill. 1804 [incl. Alepyrum Brown 1810, Pseudalepyrum Dandy 1932] ME70
    |--*C. fascicularis ME70
    |--C. alepyroides GK00
    |--C. aristata GK00
    |--C. banksii LK14
    |--C. cephaloformis G04
    |--C. ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. curta LK14
    |--C. drummondiana GK00
    |--C. exserta LK14
    |--C. glabra GK00
    |--C. humillima GK00
    |--C. minima Kirk 1891 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. monogyna SR07
    |--C. mutica GK00
    |--C. pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. pilosa GK00
    |--C. polygyna GK00
    `--C. strigosa (Brown) Roemer & Schultes 1817 HE80 [=Desvauxia strigosa Brown 1810 ME70]

Nomina nuda: Chaetanthus aristatus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Chordifex laxus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Hypolaena humilis Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina cana Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina coangustata Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina kraussii Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina roycei Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina scariosa Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina tephrina Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Sporadanthus strictus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00 GK00

Calorophus minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 [=C. elongatus var. minor Hook. f. 1858 ME70, Empodisma minor HE80, Hypolaena lateriflora var. minor (Hook. f.) Cheeseman 1906 ME70]

Centrolepis ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 [=Gaimardia ciliata Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Hieron. 1888 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70; incl. Centrolepis viridis var. ligulata Kirk 1891 ME70, Gaimardia ciliata var. ligulata (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum var. ligulatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70, Alepyrum viride Kirk 1882 (n. n.) ME70, Centrolepis viridis Kirk 1891 ME70]

Centrolepis minima Kirk 1891 HE80 [=Gaimardia minima (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 non Col. 1890 ME70, Pseudalepyrum minimum (Kirk) Dandy 1932 ME70]

Centrolepis pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 [=Gaimardia pallida Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Hooker 1853 ME70, Pseudalepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BM65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[GKL04] Gibson, N., G. J. Keighery & J. A. K. Lane. 2004. Five years monitoring of the Lake Muir-Unicup wetland system, south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 29–33.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129–132.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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