Racomitrium lanuginosum, photographed by Stuart Dunlop.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.
Contains: Grimmia.

The Grimmiales is an order of mosses found growing on rocks. A close relationship between Ptychomitrium and Grimmiaceae, but not Scouleriaceae, is supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (La Farge et al. 2000). Members of the Grimmiaceae usually grow in dense tufts or cushions on rocks (Dixon 1924).

See also: Southern moss (Taxon of the Week: Ptychomitrium muelleri).

Characters (from La Farge et al. 2000): Plants autoicous or dioicous. Peristome with 16 entire, perforate, or divided teeth (smooth or papillose; never striate) that are paired (eight teeth) or form 32 filiform prongs.

    |--Scouleriaceae SK02
    |    |--Scouleria patagonica D03
    |    `--Tridontium Hooker ex Hooker 1840 SK02
    |         `--T. tasmanicum Hooker ex Hooker 1840 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Ptychomitrium Fürnr. 1829 [Ptychomitriaceae] SK02
    |    |--P. australe (Hampe) Jaeger 1874 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--P. laxifolium (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Brachysteleum laxifolium, Glyphomitrium laxifolium] SK02
    |    |--P. ligulatum D03
    |    |--P. mittenii Jaeger 1874 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--P. muelleri (Mitt.) Jaeger 1874 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--P. tortula N02
    `--Grimmiaceae SK02
         |--Grimmia SK02
         |--Glyphomitrium daviesii [=Bryum daviesii] D24
         |--Campylostelium saxicola [=Dicranum saxicola, Glyphomitrium saxicola] D24
         |--Coscinodon D24
         |    |--C. cribrosus [=Grimmia cribrosa] D24
         |    |--C. humilis D24
         |    `--C. petersoni D24
         |--Schistidium Brid. 1819 SK02
         |    |--S. apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. a. var. apocarpum D24
         |    |    |--‘Grimmia apocarpa’ var. gracilis [incl. Barbula chlorophana, Schistidium nodulosum] D24
         |    |    |--‘Grimmia apocarpa’ var. pumila D24
         |    |    `--‘Grimmia apocarpa’ var. rivularis non Schistidium rivulare D24
         |    |--‘Grimmia’ conferta D24
         |    |--S. crassipilum M08
         |    |--S. elegantulum M08
         |    |--‘Grimmia’ maritima D24
         |    |--S. readeri (Broth.) Ochyra & Muñoz 2000 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |--S. rivulare (Brid.) Podp. 1911 [incl. Grimmia flexifolia, S. flexifolium] SK02
         |    |--S. stirlingii (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1998 [=Grimmia stirlingii Müll.Hal. 1898] SK02
         |    `--S. truncatoapocarpum (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1998 [=Grimmia truncatoapocarpa Müll.Hal. 1898] SK02
         `--Racomitrium Brid. 1819 SK02
              |  i. s.: R. affine (Schleich. ex Weber & Mohr) Lindb. 1875 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
              |         ‘Grimmia’ compactula Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         R. crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Hooker & Wilson 1854 [=Grimmia crispula (preoc.)] SK02
              |           |--R. c. var. crispulum (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |           `--R. c. var. tasmanicum (Hampe) Lawton 1973 [=R. heterostichum var. tasmanicum] SK02
              |         ‘Grimmia’ cylindropyxis Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         R. fuscescens N02
              |         R. himalayanum N02
              |         R. japonicum Dozy & Molk. 1847 [incl. R. leptostomoides Först. 1901] SK02
              |         R. laevigatum D03
              |         R. nigritum D03
              |         R. obtusum (Brid.) Brid. 1819 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |         ‘Grimmia’ procumbens Mitt. 1882 [=Guembelia procumbens (n. n.)] SK02
              |         R. pruinosum (Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1869 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
              |         R. pseudopatens (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Grimmia pseudopatens] SK02
              |         R. ptychophyllum (Mitt.) Mitt. 1867 SK02
              |         R. rupestre (Hooker & Wilson) Hooker & Wilson 1854 [=R. crispulum var. rupestre] SK02
              |         R. striatipilum Cardot 1905 [incl. R. crispipulum] SK02
              |         R. sublamprocarpum D03
              |         R. subsecundum N02
              |--R. subg. Dryptodon D24
              |    |--R. ellipticum [=Dicranum ellipticum, Grimmia elliptica] D24
              |    `--R. protensum D24 [incl. Grimmia aquatica D24, R. aquaticum SK02]
              `--R. subg. Eu-Rhacomitrium D24
                   |--R. canescens D24 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |--R. c. var. canescens D24
                   |    `--R. c. var. ericoides D24
                   |--R. fasciculare [=Grimmia fascicularis] D24
                   |--R. heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--R. lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--R. ramulosum [=Grimmia ramulosa] D24
                   `--R. sudeticum (Funck) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)

Nomina nuda: Grimmia apocarpa f. submutica Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Racomitrium acicularum Dixon ex Ramsay 1984 SK02 [=Bryum aciculare D24, Grimmia acicularis D24; incl. Rhacomitrium aciculare var. denticulatum D24]
             Racomitrium austrosudeticum Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Rhacomitrium flavopallidum Dusén 1903 D03

Ptychomitrium australe (Hampe) Jaeger 1874 [=Brachysteleum australe, Glyphomitrium australe; incl. Ptychomitrium acutifolium, Brachysteleum acutifolium, Glyphomitrium acutifolium, G. adamsonii, Brachysteleum adamsonii, Ptychomitrium adamsonii] SK02

Ptychomitrium mittenii Jaeger 1874 [=Brachysteleum mittenii, Glyphomitrium mittenii; incl. G. serratum, Brachysteleum serratum, Ptychomitrium serratum (preoc.)] SK02

Ptychomitrium muelleri (Mitt.) Jaeger 1874 [=Glyphomitrium muelleri, Brachysteleum muelleri; incl. B. commutatum, Glyphomitrium commutatum, Ptychomitrium commutatum, Brachysteleum howeanum, Glyphomitrium howeanum, Ptychomitrium howeanum, P. howei (l. c.), Brachysteleum microblastum, Glyphomitrium microblastum, Ptychomitrium microblastum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

Racomitrium affine (Schleich. ex Weber & Mohr) Lindb. 1875 SK02 [=Grimmia affinis D24, R. heterostichum ssp. affine (Weber & Mohr) Amann 1919 SK02; incl. R. heterostichum var. alopecurum SK02, Grimmia calvescens D24, G. fusco-viridis D24, G. papillulata D24]

Racomitrium canescens D24 [=Trichostomum canescens SK02, Grimmia canescens D24; incl. Rhacomitrium consocians D24]

Racomitrium crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Hooker & Wilson 1854 var. crispulum [incl. R. chlorocarpum, Dryptodon chlorocarpus (n. n.), Grimmia chlorocarpa (n. n.), G. emersa, Racomitrium emersum, G. sullivanii, R. sullivanii, R. symphyodon, Grimmia symphyodonta, R. symphyodontum] SK02

Racomitrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 D24, SK02 [=Grimmia heterosticha SK02; incl. G. affinis var. gracilescens D24, Racomitrium heterostichum var. gracilescens SK02, G. pycnotricha SK02, R. pycnotrichum SK02, G. sublurida D24]

Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 D24, SK02 [=Grimmia lanuginosa SK02, Trichostomum lanuginosum D24; incl. Bryum hypnoides (nom. illeg.) SK02, Grimmia hypnoides D24, Racomitrium hypnoides (nom. illeg.) SK02, R. sundaicum SK02, Grimmia sundaica SK02]

Racomitrium obtusum (Brid.) Brid. 1819 [=R. affine var. obtusum, R. heterostichum var. obtusum (Brid.) Delogn. 1885] SK02

Racomitrium pruinosum (Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1869 SK02 [=R. lanuginosum var. pruinosum Wilson 1859 SK02, Grimmia conferta var. pruinosa D24, G. lanuginosa var. pruinosa SK02; incl. R. austrocanescens Dusén 1907 SK02]

Racomitrium sudeticum (Funck) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 D24, SK02 [=Trichostomum sudeticum D24; incl. Grimmia amoena SK02, Racomitrium amoenum SK02, G. microcarpa D24, Rhacomitrium microcarpon D24]

Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 SK02 [=Grimmia apocarpa SK02; incl. G. apocarpa var. alpicola (nom. rej.) D24, SK02, G. antipodum SK02, Schistidium antipodum SK02, S. australiense SK02, Grimmia flexuosa (n. n.) SK02, G. apocarpa f. mutica (Hampe) Martin 1946 (n. n.) SK02, G. platyphylla D24]

Schistidium readeri
(Broth.) Ochyra & Muñoz 2000 [=Grimmia readeri Broth. 1902; incl. G. atricha (preoc.), Schistidium atrichum Ochyra 1998 (preoc.), G. atrichoides] SK02

Tridontium tasmanicum Hooker ex Hooker 1840 [=Dichodontium tasmanicum, Dicranum tasmanicum, Didymodon tasmanicus; incl. Glyphomitrium latifolium, Ptychomitrium latifolium] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

La Farge, C., B. D. Mishler, J. A. Wheeler, D. P. Wall, K. Johannes, S. Schaffer & A. J. Shaw. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the haplolepideous mosses. Bryologist 103 (2): 257-276.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 28 December 2017.

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