Lesser bulrush Typha angustifolia, copyright Le Loup Gris.

Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Bromeliaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Restionaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae.

The Poales are a clade of monocotyledonous flowering plants united by molecular analyses, as well as by the presence of epidermal silica bodies (phytoliths).

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Web): Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermal; raphides absent; inflorescence indeterminate; style well developed, stigmas small, dry; micropyle bistomal, both integuments ca. 2 cells across; cotyledon hyperphyllar, haustorial; whole nuclear genome duplication [σ/sigma event]; mitochondrial sdh3 [succinate dehydrogenase 3] gene lost.

<==Poales [Glumiflorae, Juncales, Xyridaceae, Xyridales, Xyridineae]
    |  i. s.: Lyginia OS04 [Lyginiaceae DS04]
    |           |--L. barbata RL05
    |           `--L. imberbis OS04
    |         Hopkinsiaceae DS04
    |--Rapateaceae [Rapateoideae] DS04
    |    |--Rapatea xiphoides DS04
    |    `--+--+--Cephalostemon flavus DS04
    |       |  `--Spathanthus bicolor DS04
    |       `--+--Stegolepis DS04
    |          |    |--S. ligulata BS05
    |          |    `--S. parvipetala DS04
    |          `--Saxofridericioideae DS04
    |               |--Kunhardtia radiata DS04
    |               `--+--Epidryos allenii DS04
    |                  `--Schoenocephalium cucullatum DS04
    `--+--Typhaceae [Typhales] DS04
       |    |--Sparganium Linnaeus 1753 DS04, ME70 [Sparganiaceae]
       |    |    |--S. americanum DS04
       |    |    |--S. emersum L06
       |    |    |--S. erectum L06
       |    |    |--S. eurycarpum DS04
       |    |    |--S. pusilloides JD05
       |    |    |--S. simplex CS77
       |    |    `--S. subglobosum Morong 1888 [incl. S. antipodum Graebner 1900] ME70
       |    `--Typha Linnaeus 1753 SR07, ME70
       |         |--T. angustata PP07
       |         |--T. angustifolia Linnaeus 1753 BF89
       |         |    |--T. a. var. angustifolia C06
       |         |    `--T. a. var. brownii C06
       |         |--T. domingensis VB02
       |         |--T. elephantiana VB02
       |         |--T. latifolia Linnaeus 1753 CD07
       |         |    |--T. l. ssp. latifolia G01
       |         |    `--T. l. ssp. capensis G01
       |         |--T. minima GR98
       |         `--T. orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Bromeliaceae SR07
          `--+--+--Eriocaulaceae DS04
             |  `--+--Abolboda [Abolbodoideae] DS04
             |     |    `--A. macrostachya DS04
             |     `--+--Aratitiyopea lopezii DS04
             |        `--Orectanthe sceptrum DS04
             `--+--+--Flagellariaceae DS04
                |  |    |--Flagellaria indica GPWG01
                |  |    `--Susum YY22
                |  `--+--Restionaceae SR07
                |     `--+--Joinvillea [Joinvilleaceae] DS04
                |        |    |--J. ascendens GPWG01
                |        |    `--J. plicata GPWG01
                |        `--+--Poaceae SR07
                |           `--Ecdeiocolea [Ecdeiocoleaceae] SR07
                |                `--E. monostachya DS04
                `--+--Mayaca [Mayacaceae] SR07
                   |    `--M. sellowiana DS04
                   `--+--+--+--Cyperaceae SR07
                      |  |  `--Juncaceae DS04
                      |  `--+--Prionium [Prioniaceae] DS04
                      |     |    `--P. serratum DS04
                      |     `--Thurnia [Thurniaceae] DS04
                      |          |--T. jenmani DS04
                      |          `--T. polycephala DS04
                      `--Xyridoideae DS04
                           |--Achlyphila DS04
                           `--Xyris SR07
                                |--X. bicephala DS04
                                |--X. cheumatophila LK14
                                |--X. complanata LK14
                                |--X. indica LK14
                                |--X. jupicai DS04
                                |--X. laxifolia C55
                                |--X. oligantha LK14
                                |--X. pauciflora LK14
                                `--X. pusilla LK14

Typha orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 [incl. T. muelleri Rohrb. 1869 ME70, T. angustifolia var. muelleri C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS05] Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 337–351.

[BF89] Burnham, B. H., & P. E. Fell. 1989. Distribution of Melampus bidentatus (Say) and Succinea wilsoni (Lea) within a tidal marsh in eastern Connecticut. Nautilus 103 (3): 109–112.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[G01] Grout, T. G. 2001. Advances in understanding the ecology of Euseius (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) species on citrus in southern Africa. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 464–469. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

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