Racopilum cuspidigerum, photographed by Heino Lepp.

Belongs within: Musci.
Contains: Hypnales, Hookeriales, Rhizogoniaceae, Hypnodendron, Orthotrichaceae, Splachnales, Bryaceae, Bartramiaceae, Mniaceae.

The Bryidae are one of the major subgroups of mosses. They are distinguished by the possession of a diplolepideous-alternate peristome of articulated cell wall remnants forming two alternating concentric rings of teeth with cilia often present between the inner teeth (Cox et al. 2000). Bryid mosses have been divided between the pleurocarpus Hypnaneae and the acrocarpous Bryanae, with the Rhizogoniales morphologically intermediate between the two. However, the Rhizogoniales are probably paraphyletic with regard to the Hypnaneae, and Bryanae may be paraphyletic to Rhizogoniales + Hypnaneae combined.

<==Bryidae [Pleurocarpineae]
    |  i. s.: Bryoxiphiaceae [Bryoxiphioideae] O02
    |         Desmatodon Brid. 1819 SG-C01, SK02
    |           `--D. cernuus SG-C01
    |         Leucodon Schwägr. 1816 SK02 [Leucodontaceae FHH01]
    |           |--L. canariensis FHH01
    |           `--L. sciuroides N02
    |--Hypnaneae SK02
    |    |--Hypnales SK02
    |    `--Hookeriales SK02
    |--Rhizogoniales [Rhizogonianae] SK02
    |    |--Rhizogoniaceae SK02
    |    |--Hypnodendron SK02
    |    |--Mittenia Lindb. 1863 [Mitteniaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--M. plumula (Mitt.) Lindb. 1863 [=Mniopsis plumula; incl. Mn. rotundifolia, Mittenia rotundifolia] SK02
    |    |--Spiridens Nees 1823 [Spiridentaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--S. vieillardii Schimp. 1865 [incl. S. muelleri] SK02
    |    |--Calomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 [Calomniaceae] SK02
    |    |    |--C. complanatum (Hooker & Wilson) Lindb. 1872 [incl. C. laetum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |    |    `--C. milleri Vitt 1991 SK02
    |    |--Bescherellia Duby 1873 [Cyrtopodaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--B. elegantissima Duby 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--Pterobryella (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1877 [Pterobryellaceae] SK02
    |    |    |--P. breviacuminata Besch. 1878 SK02
    |    |    `--P. praenitens Müll.Hal. 1878 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--Racopilaceae SK02
    |         |--Powellia Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |         |    `--P. involutifolia Mitt. 1868 [incl. Helicophyllum australe, P. australis (Hampe) Broth. 1907] SK02
    |         `--Racopilum Palisot de Beauvois 1805 SK02
    |              |--R. crinitum Hampe 1870 SK02
    |              |--R. cuspidigerum (Schwägr.) Ångström 1872 SK02
    |              |    |--R. c. var. cuspidigerum SK02
    |              |    `--R. c. var. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Zanten & Dijkstra 1995 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              |--R. pacificum Besch. 1898 SK02
    |              |--R. purpurascens Hampe 1876 SK02
    |              |--R. robustum SK02
    |              |--R. strumiferum M49
    |              `--R. tomentosum (Hedw.) Brid. 1827 [=Hypopterygium tomentosum] SK02
    `--Bryanae SK02
         |--Orthotrichaceae SK02
         |--Splachnales SK02
         |--Hedwigiales SK02
         |    |--Hedwigiaceae SK02
         |    |    |--Hedwigidium Bruch & Schimp. 1846 SK02
         |    |    |    `--H. integrifolium (Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |    `--Hedwigia Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
         |    |         `--H. ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--Rhacocarpus Lindb. 1863 [Rhacocarpaceae] SK02
         |         |--R. purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |         `--R. rehmannianus (Müll.Hal.) Wijk & Margad. 1960 SK02
         |              |--R. r. var. rehmannianus SK02
         |              `--R. r. var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--Bryales SK02
              |--Bryaceae SK02
              |--Bartramiaceae SK02
              |--Mniaceae SK02
              |--Aulacomnium Schwägr. 1827 [Aulacomniaceae] SK02
              |    `--A. palustre (Hedw.) Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Orthodontium Schwägr. 1827 [Orthodontiaceae] SK02
              |    |--O. australe Hooker & Wilson 1844 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    |--O. inflatum (Mitt.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    |--O. lineare Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    `--O. pallens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1903 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              `--Leptostomum Brown 1811 [Leptostomataceae] SK02
                   |--L. erectum Brown 1811 [incl. Gymnostomum leptostomum] SK02
                   |--L. inclinans Brown 1811 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--L. macrocarpon (Hedw.) Bach.Pyl. 1814 [=Bryum macrocarpon] SK02
                   `--L. menziesii SK02

Nomina nuda: Desmatodon pachyneuroides Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Trichostomum pachyneuroides Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Desmatodon pachyneurus Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Trichostomum pachyneurus Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Hedwigidium campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Weymouth 1894 [=Braunia campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Hedwigidium weymouthii Fleischer 1920 [=Braunia weymouthii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Leptostomum inclinans f. procera Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Racopilum aeruginosum Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1877 SK02
             Racopilum convolutaceum f. robusta Broth. & Watts 1915 SK02
             Rhacocarpus patagonicus Dusén 1903 D03

Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwägr. 1827 [=Gymnocybe palustris, A. palustre var. eupalustre (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Bescherellia elegantissima Duby 1873 [incl. Cladomnion bescherelloides (n. n.), Cyrtopus bescherelloides (n. n.), Bescherellia brevifolia Hampe 1876, B. cryphaeoides (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1920, B. cyrtopus (n. n.)] SK02

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 [=Anictangium ciliatum, Schistidium ciliatum; incl. Hedwigia albicans (nom. illeg.), H. juratzkae, Pilotrichum microcyatheum, Cryphaea microcyathea, Hedwigia microcyathea, H. novae-valesiae (nom. inv.), H. occidentalis (nom. inv.), Anictangium planifolium, H. albicans var. viridis (comb. inv.)] SK02

Hedwigidium integrifolium
(Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 [=Hedwigia integrifolia; incl. Schistidium drummondii, Hedwigia imberbis var. drummondii, Hedwigidium drummondii, Neckera drummondii, N. emersa, Harrisonia emersa (n. n.), Hedwigia emersa (n. n.), Hedwigidium emersum, Hedwigia imberbis, Hedwigidium imberbe, Schistidium australe (nom. inv.)] SK02

Leptostomum inclinans Brown 1811 [=Gymnostomum inclinans; incl. L. flexipile, L. gracile, L. inclinans var. longiseta Hampe 1856 (n. n.)] SK02

Orthodontium australe Hooker & Wilson 1844 [=Apalodium australe; incl. O. australe ssp. robustiusculum] SK02

Orthodontium inflatum (Mitt.) Paris 1896 [=Apalodium inflatum; incl. Wilsoniella compacta (n. n.), Orthodontium ovale, W. whiteleggei Geh. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 (n. n.)] SK02

Orthodontium lineare Schwägr. 1827 [=Apalodium lineare (preoc.); incl. O. lanceolatum, A. lanceolatum, A. sulcatum, Orthodontium lineare ssp. sulcatum, O. zetterstedtii] SK02

Orthodontium pallens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1903 [=Weissia pallens, Dicranella pallens, Microdus pallens, Seligeria pallens; incl. Apalodium lineare (nom. illeg.), Zygodon linearis (nom. inv.)] SK02

Pterobryella praenitens Müll.Hal. 1878 [=Dendrohypnum praenitens, Hypnodendron praenitens, Hypnum praenitens] SK02

Racopilum cuspidigerum
var. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Zanten & Dijkstra 1995 [=Hypopterygium convolutaceum, R. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Reichardt 1870, R. convolutum (nom. illeg.); incl. R. australe, R. cristatum, R. laetum, Hypopterygium strumiferum, R. strumiferum] SK02

Rhacocarpus purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 [incl. Braunia humboldtii, Harrisonia humboldtii, Hedwigia humboldtii, Rhacocarpus humboldtii; incl. Harrisonia australis, R. australis] SK02

Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 [=Harrisonia webbiana, R. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


Cox, C. J., B. Goffinet, A. E. Newton, A. J. Shaw & T. A. J. Hedderson. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the diplolepideous-alternate mosses (Bryidae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Bryologist 103 (2): 224-241.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355-360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[O02] Ochyra, R. 2002. Nomenclatural changes in subfamilies of the Dicranaceae. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 23 (4): 345-349.

[SG-C01] Sérgio, C., & I. Granzow-de la Cerda. 2001. On the identity of Desmatodon meridionalis Luisier. Journal of Bryology 23: 69-70.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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