Dunaliella sp., copyright CSIRO.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.

The Volvocales are a group of solitary or colonial, biflagellate, unicellular green algae.

Volvocales [Volvocineae]
    |--Volvocaceae [Volvocidae] NM03
    |    |--Pleodorina californica NM03, C79
    |    |--Eudorina Ehrenberg 1832 RA05, M70
    |    |    `--E. elegans Ehrenberg 1832 M70
    |    |--Gonium A90
    |    |    |--G. pectorale C79
    |    |    `--G. sociale C79
    |    `--Volvox Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |         |--V. aureus SG05
    |         |--V. carteri EDF04
    |         |    |--V. c. f. carteri EDF04
    |         |    `--V. c. f. nagariensis EDF04
    |         |--V. chaos Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |         `--V. globator Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--+--+--Gongrosira papuasica L-BC03
       |  `--Protosiphon [Protosiphonaceae] L-BC03
       |       `--P. botryoides L-BC03
       `--Polyblepharidaceae [Phytomonadida, Polyblepharidae] S57
            |--Spermatozopsis similis BB02, SL03
            |--Stephanoptera gracilis (Artari) Smith 1933 [=Asteromonas gracilis] S57
            |--Polytomella BB02
            |    |--P. agilis SR02
            |    `--P. parva GLB04
            `--Dunaliella S57
                 |--D. acidophila PHK96
                 |--D. parva SG99
                 |--D. primolecta PHK96
                 |--D. salina (Dunal) Teodoresco 1905 S57
                 |--D. tertiolecta YB03
                 `--D. viridis FEF04

Volvocales incertae sedis:
  Chlamydomonadaceae A90
    |--Sphaerellopsis A90
    `--Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg 1835 M70
         |  i. s.: C. angulosa Dill 1895 M70
         |         C. eugametos GLB04
         |         C. globosa SX97
         |         C. incerta SM03
         |         C. komma SX97
         |         C. microsphaera SX97
         |         C. nivalis PHK96
         |         C. noctigama BB02
         |         C. simplex SX97
         |--C. reinhardtii Dangeard 1888 TB03, GPN97
         `--+--+--C. moewusii TB03
            |  `--‘Polytoma’ oviforme TB03
            `--+--C. applanata TB03
               `--Polytoma TB03
                    |--P. uvella TB03
                    `--+--P. mirum TB03
                       `--P. obtusum TB03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[BB02] Brugerolle, G., G. Bricheux, H. Philippe & G. Coffe. 2002. Collodictyon triciliatum and Diphylleia rotans (=Aulacomonas submarina) form a new family of flagellates (Collodictyonidae) with tubular mitochondrial cristae that is phylogenetically distinct from other flagellate groups. Protist 153: 59–70.

[C79] Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 29–37. Academic Press: London.

[EDF04] Ekelund, F., N. Daugbjerg & L. Fredslund. 2004. Phylogeny of Heteromita, Cercomonas and Thaumatomonas based on SSU rDNA sequences, including the description of Neocercomonas jutlandica sp. nov., gen. nov. European Journal of Protistology 40: 119–135.

[FEF04] Finlay, B. J., G. F. Esteban & T. Fenchel. 2004. Protist diversity is different? Protist 155: 15–22.

[GPN97] Gatenby, C. M., B. C. Parker & R. J. Neves. 1997. Growth and survival of juvenile rainbow mussels, Villosa iris (Lea, 1829) (Bivalvia: Unionidae), reared on algal diets and sediment. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 57–66.

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[NM03] Nozaki, H., M. Matsuzaki, M. Takahara, O. Misumi, H. Kuroiwa, M. Hasegawa, T. Shin-i, Y. Kohara, N. Ogasawara & T. Kuroiwa. 2003. The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 485–497.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RA05] Rath, J., & S. P. Adhikary. 2005. A check list of algae from Chilika Lake, Orissa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 101–114.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355–365.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 63–86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SL03] Schoppmeier, J., & K.-F. Lechtreck. 2003. Flagellar regeneration in Spermatozopsis similis (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 918–922.

[SR02] Simpson, A. G. B., A. J. Roger, J. D. Silberman, D. D. Leipe, V. P. Edgcomb, L. S. Jermiin, D. J. Patterson & M. L. Sogin. 2002. Evolutionary history of “early-diverging” eukaryotes: the excavate taxon Carpediemonas is a close relative of Giardia. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1782–1791.

[SG99] Sluiman, H. J., & C. Guihal. 1999. Phylogenetic position of Chaetosphaeridium (Chlorophyta), a basal lineage in the Charophyceae inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 35: 395–402.

[SX97] Song B. & Xie P. 1997. Preliminary studies on the community structure of the planktonic protozoa from the outlet of Lake Dongting. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 21 (Suppl.): 60–68.

[TB03] Tartar, A., D. G. Boucias, J. J. Becnel & B. J. Adams. 2003. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1719–1723.

[YB03] Young, E. B., & J. Beardall. 2003. Photosynthetic function in Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta) during a nitrogen starvation and recovery cycle. Journal of Phycology 39: 897–905.

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