Ambulacrum, dorsum and venter of Cyrthydrolaelaps hirtus, from Evans & Till (1979).

Belongs within: Mesostigmata.
Contains: Epicriidae, Zerconidae, Parasitidae, Eviphidoidea, Phytoseioidea, Ascidae, Ameroseiidae, Melicharidae, Rhodacaridae, Ologamasidae, Digamasellidae, Halolaelapidae, Veigaia, Gamasolaelaps, Spinturnicidae, Laelapidae, Dermanyssidae, Rhinonyssidae, Macronyssidae, Varroidae, Halarachnidae.

The Gamasina is a major subdivision of the mesostigmatan mites, including the majority of well-known species. In members of the subgroups Parasitidae and Dermanyssiae, the modified chelicerae of males bear specialised appendages used in sperm transfer; such appendages are absent in Epicriiae and Arctacaridae. In Dermanyssiae this takes the form of a spermatodactyl, a distally-projecting process that is usually free from the movable finger; the female sperm access system opens through a pair of small solenostomes in the region of coxae III or IV. The Epicriiae are characterised by reduction in the length of the peritremes, at least in the adult stage and sometimes in the nymphs. The dorsal shield is entire in Epicriidae but divided between podonotal and opisthonotal shields in Zerconoidea. The Arctacaridae are a group of poorly-known, heavily sclerotised mites found in high latitudes of Asia and North America with the dorsum covered by an entire shield in males but with the dorsal shield abbreviated in females (Lindquist et al. 2009b).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009b): Adults with one or two dorsal shields, lacking marginal shields or their platelets. Tritosternal base cylindrical or flattened, never subrectangular or columnar. Peritreme typically linear, sometimes reflexed anteriorly or posteriorly, rarely vestigial. Epigynal shield of female flask- or wedge-shaped or subtriangular, often extending into opisthogastric region and bearing setae st5 or flanked by those setae in the postcoxal region; epigynal shield reduced or obliterated in some endoparasitic groups; shield usually not surrounded by fused sternal-endopodal-ventral elements. Femur IV of deutonymph and adult typically with six setae.

<==Gamasina [Epicriides] LKW09b
    |  i. s.: Lysigamasus conus Karg 1971 M96
    |--Epicriiae [Epicriina] LKW09a
    |    |--Epicriidae LKW09b
    |    `--Zerconoidea [Zerconina] LKW09a
    |         |--Zerconidae LKW09b
    |         `--Coprozercon [Coprozerconidae] LKW09b
    |              `--C. scopaeus LKW09b
    `--+--Arctacaridae [Arctacariae, Arctacarina, Arctacaroidea] LKW09b
       |    |--Proarctacarus oregonensis LKW09b
       |    `--Arctacarus Evans 1955 FH93
       |         `--A. rostratus Evans 1955 FH93
       `--+--Parasitidae LKW09b
          `--Dermanyssiae [Dermanyssides, Dermanyssina, Neopodospermata] LKW09b
               |--Eviphidoidea LKW09b
               |--Phytoseioidea LKW09b
               |--Ascoidea LKW09b
               |    |--Ascidae LKW09b
               |    `--+--Ameroseiidae LKW09b
               |       `--Melicharidae LKW09b
               |--Rhodacaroidea LKW09b
               |    |--Rhodacaridae K91
               |    |--Ologamasidae LKW09b
               |    |--Digamasellidae LKW09b
               |    |--Halolaelapidae LKW09b
               |    |--Teranyssus [Teranyssidae] LKW09b
               |    |    `--T. howardensis LKW09b
               |    `--Laelaptonyssus Womersley 1956 H98 [Laelaptonyssidae LKW09b]
               |         |--L. darwiniensis Halliday 1987 H98
               |         |--L. lenzi Halliday 1987 H98
               |         |--L. mitis Womersley 1956 H98
               |         `--L. setosus LKW09b
               |--Veigaiidae [Cyrtolaelapidae, Cyrtolaelaptini, Gamasolaelapidae, Veigaiaidae, Veigaioidea] LKW09b
               |    |--Veigaia LKW09b
               |    |--Cyrthydrolaelaps Berlese 1904 FH93
               |    |    |--*C. hirtus Berlese 1905 ET79
               |    |    |--C. californicus Hirschmann 1966 FH93
               |    |    |--C. kargi Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    |    |--C. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    |    `--C. watsoni Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    `--Gamasolaelaps FH93
               `--Dermanyssoidea [Laelapoidea] LKW09b
                    |--Spinturnicidae E-PS91
                    |--Laelapidae LKW09b
                    |--Dermanyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Rhinonyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Ophiopneumicola [Entonyssidae, Entonyssinae] LKW09b
                    |--Macronyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Varroidae LKW09b
                    |--Halarachnidae LKW09b
                    |--Manitherionyssus [Manitherionyssidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--M. heterotarsus LKW09b
                    |--Omentolaelaps [Omentolaelapidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--O. mehelyae LKW09b
                    |--Hystrichonyssus [Hystrichonyssidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--H. turneri LKW09b
                    |--Dasyponyssidae LKW09b
                    |    |--Dasyponyssus neivai LKW09b
                    |    `--Xenarthronyssus furmani LKW09b
                    |--Larvamima [Larvamimidae] LKW09b
                    |    |--L. carli LKW09b
                    |    |--L. cristata LKW09b
                    |    |--L. marianae LKW09b
                    |    `--L. schneirlai LKW09b
                    |--Ixodorhynchidae LKW09b
                    |    |--Scutanolaelaps LKW09b
                    |    |--Hemilaelaps Hull 1918 LKW09b, ET79
                    |    |--Strandtitibbetsia LKW09b
                    |    |--Asiatolaelaps LKW09b
                    |    `--Ixodorhynchus liponyssoides LKW09b
                    `--Iphiopsididae [Iphiopsidinae] LKW09b
                         |--Julolaelaps Berlese 1916 FH93
                         |    `--J. moseri Hunter & Rosario 1986 FH93
                         |--Trichoaspis [Trichoaspididae] LKW09b
                         |    `--T. julus LKW09b
                         `--Iphiopsis Berlese 1882 FH93
                              `--I. obesus Banks 1917 FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E-PS91] Estrada-Peña, A., & N. Sánchez. 1991. Dorsal setal distribution and homologies in several species of mites of the family Spinturnicidae (Mesostigmata). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 141–146. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari—Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari—Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749–758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09a] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009a. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[LKW09b] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009b. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M96] Munderloh, E. 1996. Gamasina (Mesostigmata) in a dune transect at Spiekeroog (Germany, Lower Saxony). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 589–594. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

Last updated: 14 March 2020.

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