Gamasina

Ambulacrum, dorsum and venter of Cyrthydrolaelaps hirtus, from Evans & Till (1979).


Belongs within: Mesostigmata.
Contains: Epicriidae, Zerconidae, Parasitidae, Eviphidoidea, Phytoseioidea, Ascidae, Ameroseiidae, Melicharidae, Veigaia, Rhodacaridae, Ologamasidae, Digamasellidae, Halolaelapidae, Gamasellidae, Spinturnicidae, Laelapidae, Dermanyssidae, Rhinonyssidae, Macronyssidae, Varroidae, Halarachnidae.

The Gamasina is a major subdivision of the mesostigmatan mites, including the majority of well-known species. In members of the subgroups Parasitidae and Dermanyssiae, the modified chelicerae of males bear specialised appendages used in sperm transfer; such appendages are absent in Epicriiae and Arctacaridae. The Epicriiae are characterised by reduction in the length of the peritremes, at least in the adult stage and sometimes in the nymphs. The Arctacaridae are a group of poorly-known, heavily sclerotised mites found in high latitudes of Asia and North America (Lindquist et al. 2009b).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009b): Adults with one or two dorsal shields, lacking marginal shields or their platelets. Tritosternal base cylindrical or flattened, never subrectangular or columnar. Peritreme typically linear, sometimes reflexed anteriorly or posteriorly, rarely vestigial. Epigynal shield of female flask- or wedge-shaped or subtriangular, often extending into opisthogastric region and bearing setae st5 or flanked by those setae in the postcoxal region; epigynal shield reduced or obliterated in some endoparasitic groups; shield usually not surrounded by fused sternal-endopodal-ventral elements. Femur IV of deutonymph and adult typically with six setae.

Gamasina [Epicriides] LKW09b
    |--Epicriiae [Epicriina] LKW09a
    |    |--Epicriidae LKW09b
    |    `--Zerconoidea [Zerconina] LKW09a
    |         |--Zerconidae LKW09b
    |         `--Coprozercon [Coprozerconidae] LKW09b
    |              `--C. scopaeus LKW09b
    `--+--Arctacaridae [Arctacariae, Arctacarina, Arctacaroidea] LKW09b
       |    |--Proarctacarus oregonensis LKW09b
       |    `--Arctacarus Evans 1955 FH93
       |         `--A. rostratus Evans 1955 FH93
       `--+--Parasitidae LKW09b
          `--Dermanyssiae [Dermanyssides, Dermanyssina, Neopodospermata] LKW09b
               |--Eviphidoidea LKW09b
               |--Phytoseioidea LKW09b
               |--Ascoidea LKW09b
               |    |--Ascidae LKW09b
               |    `--+--Ameroseiidae LKW09b
               |       `--Melicharidae LKW09b
               |--Veigaiidae [Cyrtolaelapidae, Cyrtolaelaptini, Gamasolaelapidae, Veigaiaidae, Veigaioidea] LKW09b
               |    |--Veigaia LKW09b
               |    |--Cyrthydrolaelaps Berlese 1904 FH93
               |    |    |--*C. hirtus Berlese 1905 ET79
               |    |    |--C. californicus Hirschmann 1966 FH93
               |    |    |--C. kargi Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    |    |--C. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    |    `--C. watsoni Hirschmann 1966 H66
               |    `--Gamasolaelaps Berlese 1903 (see below for synonymy) FH93
               |         |--G. excisus (Koch 1879) K91 (see below for synonymy)
               |         |--G. bellingeri Evans 1959 FH93
               |         |--G. bisternalis H83
               |         |--G. bondwaensis Hurlbutt 1983 H83
               |         |--G. cerviformis Berlese 1916 H83
               |         |--G. excisus H83
               |         |--G. multidentatus H83
               |         |--G. shealsi [incl. G. arenosus] H83
               |         |--G. subcorticalis McGraw & Farrier 1969 FH93
               |         |--G. tuberculatus H83
               |         `--G. whartoni (Farrier 1957) (see below for synonymy) FH93
               |--Rhodacaroidea LKW09b
               |    |--Rhodacaridae K91
               |    |--Ologamasidae LKW09b
               |    |--Digamasellidae LKW09b
               |    |--Halolaelapidae LKW09b
               |    |--Gamasellidae KA90
               |    |--Teranyssus [Teranyssidae] LKW09b
               |    |    `--T. howardensis LKW09b
               |    `--Laelaptonyssus Womersley 1956 H98 [Laelaptonyssidae LKW09b]
               |         |--L. darwiniensis Halliday 1987 H98
               |         |--L. lenzi Halliday 1987 H98
               |         |--L. mitis Womersley 1956 H98
               |         `--L. setosus LKW09b
               `--Dermanyssoidea [Laelapoidea] LKW09b
                    |--Spinturnicidae E-PS91
                    |--Laelapidae LKW09b
                    |--Dermanyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Rhinonyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Ophiopneumicola [Entonyssidae] LKW09b
                    |--Macronyssidae LKW09b
                    |--Varroidae LKW09b
                    |--Halarachnidae LKW09b
                    |--Manitherionyssus [Manitherionyssidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--M. heterotarsus LKW09b
                    |--Omentolaelaps [Omentolaelapidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--O. mehelyae LKW09b
                    |--Hystrichonyssus [Hystrichonyssidae] LKW09b
                    |    `--H. turneri LKW09b
                    |--Dasyponyssidae LKW09b
                    |    |--Dasyponyssus neivai LKW09b
                    |    `--Xenarthronyssus furmani LKW09b
                    |--Larvamima [Larvamimidae] LKW09b
                    |    |--L. carli LKW09b
                    |    |--L. cristata LKW09b
                    |    |--L. marianae LKW09b
                    |    `--L. schneirlai LKW09b
                    |--Ixodorhynchidae LKW09b
                    |    |--Scutanolaelaps LKW09b
                    |    |--Hemilaelaps Hull 1918 LKW09b, ET79
                    |    |--Strandtitibbetsia LKW09b
                    |    |--Asiatolaelaps LKW09b
                    |    `--Ixodorhynchus liponyssoides LKW09b
                    `--Iphiopsididae [Iphiopsidinae] LKW09b
                         |--Julolaelaps Berlese 1916 FH93
                         |    `--J. moseri Hunter & Rosario 1986 FH93
                         |--Trichoaspis [Trichoaspididae] LKW09b
                         |    `--T. julus LKW09b
                         `--Iphiopsis Berlese 1882 FH93
                              `--I. obesus Banks 1917 FH93

Gamasolaelaps Berlese 1903 [incl. Gorirossia Farrier 1957, Metaparasitus Oudemans & Voigts in Voigts & Oudemans 1904] FH93

Gamasolaelaps excisus (Koch 1879) K91 [=Sejus excisus ET79; incl. Cyrtolaelaps aurantiacus Berlese 1903 ET79, *Gamasolaelaps aurantiacus ET79]

Gamasolaelaps whartoni (Farrier 1957) [=Gorirossia whartoni; incl. Go. cooki Woodring 1964, Gamasolaelaps ctenisetiger Ishikawa 1978, Ga. pygmaeus Bregetova 1961] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E-PS91] Estrada-Peña, A., & N. Sánchez. 1991. Dorsal setal distribution and homologies in several species of mites of the family Spinturnicidae (Mesostigmata). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 141–146. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari—Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari—Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[H83] Hurlbutt, H. W. 1983. The systematics and geographic distribution of East African Veigaiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Acarologia 24 (2): 129–143.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749–758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09a] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009a. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[LKW09b] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009b. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

Last updated: 5 December 2017.

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