Centaurea appendicigera, photographed by Degoeje.

Belongs within: Carduoideae.

Centaurea, cockspurs and knapweeds, is a genus of thistle-like plants that is most diverse in the Mediterranean region.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Involucre of numerous unequal bracts ending in a pungent spine or scarious fringed or jagged appendage; receptacle beset with dense soft hairy bristles; flowers all tubular, outer ones usually sterile and much exceeding incolucre, sometimes radiating but never ligulate; achene oblong, compressed, hilum at base of inner margin (sometimes basal); pappus of short free scales in several unequal rows or none.

    |--C. sect. Centaurea WED98
    |    |--C. iconiensis Hub.-Mor. 1981 WED98
    |    `--C. mykalea Hub.-Mor. 1979 WED98
    |--C. sect. Acrolophus WED98
    |    |--C. cariensiformis Hub.-Mor. 1982 WED98
    |    `--C. yozgatensis Wagenitz 1997 WED98
    `--C. sect. Psephelloideae WED98
         |--C. appendicigera WED98
         |--C. hadimensis Wagenitz, Ertugrul & Dural 1998 WED98
         |--C. holtzii WED98
         |--C. pyrrhoblephara WED98
         `--C. taochia WED98

Centaurea incertae sedis:
  C. calcitrapa BR65
  C. cyanus C55
  C. ebenoides Heldreich ex Moore 1878 PL04
  C. jacea BR65
  C. laureotica Heldreich ex Halácsy 1898 PL04
  C. maculosa CLB99
    |--C. m. ssp. maculosa CLB99
    `--C. m. ssp. rhenana CLB99
  C. melitensis BR65
  C. montana C55
  C. nigra BR65
  C. nigrescens BR65
  C. pinnatifida H09
  C. × pratensis [C. jacea × C. nigra] BR65
  C. raphanina Sibthorp & Smith 1813 PL04
    |--C. r. ssp. raphanina PL04
    `--C. r. ssp. mixta (de Candolle) Runemark 1867 PL04
  C. repens [incl. C. picris] BR65
  C. solstitialis BR65
  C. triumfetti [incl. C. variegata] H91

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CLB99] Callaway, R. M., T. H. DeLuca & W. M. Belliveau. 1999. Biological control herbivores may increase competitive ability of the noxious weed Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 80: 1196-1201.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[WED98] Wagenitz, G., K. Ertugrul & H. Dural. 1998. A new species of Centaurea sect. Psephelloideae (Compositae) from SW Turkey. Willdenowia 28: 157-162.

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