Illustration of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites emerging from oocysts, from here.

Belongs within: Alveolata.
Contains: Eugregarinorida, Eimeriorina, Aconoidasida.

The Sporozoa is a group of unicellular organisms parasitic on animals, characterised by the presence of an apical complex at one end of the cell containing organelles (rhoptries and micronemes) that secrete enzymes used in piercing the membrane of host cells. In sporozoans other than the Aconoidasida, the apical complex is tipped by a funnel of microtubules called the conoid. The Sporozoa are also commonly referred to as the Apicomplexa, though Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2004) used the latter name to refer to a larger clade also including the related organisms Colpodella and Acrocoelus.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012, as Apicomplexa): At least one stage of the life cycle with flattened sub-pellicular vesicles and apical complex consisting of one or more polar rings, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, and sub-pellicular microtubules; sexuality, where known, by syngamy followed by immediate meiosis to produce haploid progeny; asexual reproduction of haploid stages occurring by binary fission, endodyogeny, endopolyogeny, and/or schizogony; locomotion by gliding, body flexion, longitudinal ridges, and/or cilia; parasitic.

Sporozoa [Coccidea, Coccidiida, Coccidiomorpha, Coccidiomorphina, Conoidasida, Euspora, Polannulifera, Telosporidia]
    |--Gregarinasina [Gregarinae, Gregarinea, Gregarinia, Gregarinomorpha] AS12
    |    |  i. s.: Acuta AS12
    |    |         Cephalolobus AS12
    |    |         Levinea AS12
    |    |         Menospora AS12
    |    |         Nematocystis AS12
    |    |         Nematopsis AS12
    |    |         Steinina AS12
    |    |         Trichorhynchus AS12
    |    |         Zygocystis C79
    |    |--+--Agamococcidiorida AS12
    |    |  |    |--Rhytidocystis polygordiae SM10
    |    |  |    `--Gemmocystis AS12
    |    |  `--+--Monocystis agilis LCK03
    |    |     `--+--Neogregarinida AS12
    |    |        |    |--Ophriocystis eletroscirrha LCK03
    |    |        |    |--Mattesia geminata C-S04
    |    |        |    `--Schyzocystis AS12
    |    |        `--Eugregarinorida LCK03
    |    `--+--Archigregarinorida AS12
    |       |    |--Filipodium AS12
    |       |    |--Platyproteum AS12
    |       |    |--Selenidium SM10
    |       |    |    |--S. terebellae C-SM10
    |       |    |    `--S. vivax C-S04
    |       |    `--Veloxidium AS12
    |       `--Cryptosporidium C-SC04
    |            |  i. s.: C. felis N00
    |            |         C. meleagridis MM03
    |            |--+--C. serpentis SM10
    |            |  `--C. muris SM10
    |            `--+--C. parvum SM10
    |               `--+--C. baileyi SM10
    |                  `--C. wrairi C-SC04
    `--+--Coccidia AS12
       |    |--Eimeriorina SM10
       |    `--Adeleorina [Adeliida] AS12
       |         |--Adelea AS12
       |         |--Adelina SM10
       |         |    |--A. bambarooniae SM10
       |         |    `--A. transita R00
       |         |--Hepatozoon C-SC04
       |         |    |--H. aegypti K92
       |         |    |--H. americanum C-SC04
       |         |    `--H. catesbianae C-SC04
       |         |--Dactylosoma AS12
       |         |--Haemolivia AS12
       |         |--Haemogregarina AS12
       |         |    |--H. aeglefini K-M02
       |         |    `--H. stepanovi K92
       |         |--Klossia AS12
       |         `--Klossiella AS12
       `--+--+--Cardiosporidium cionae SM10
          |  `--Nephromyces Giard 1888 [Nephromycida, Nephromycidae] SM10
          `--Aconoidasida SM10

Sporozoa incertae sedis:
  Aggregata eberthi K92
  Akiba cauleryi K92
  Babesiosoma stableri K92
  Protococcidiorida AS12
    |--Angeiocystis AS12
    |--Coelotropha AS12
    |--Grellia AS12
    |--Eleutheroschizon AS12
    |--Myriosporides AS12
    |--Myriospora AS12
    `--Sawayella AS12
  Trophosphaera planorbulinae LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185–212.

[C79] Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 29–37. Academic Press: London.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 223–261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K92] Krylov, M. V. 1992. The origin of heteroxeny in Sporozoa. Parazitologiya 26 (5): 361–368.

[LCK03] Leander, B. S., R. E. Clopton & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and β-tubulin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 345–354.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MM03] Mallon, M., A. MacLeod, J. Wastling, H. Smith, B. Reilly & A. Tait. 2003. Population structures and the role of genetic exchange in the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 407–417.

[N00] Nichols, G. L. 2000. Food-borne protozoa. British Medical Bulletin 56 (1): 209–235.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[SM10] Saffo, M. B., A. M. McCoy, C. Rieken & C. H. Slamovits. 2010. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16190–16195.

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