Ixodidae

Female Hyalomma marginatum, copyright Adam Cuerden.


Belongs within: Parasitiformes.
Contains: Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Ixodes (Ixodes).

The Ixodidae, hard ticks, are a group of ticks characterised by the presence of a hardened dorsal scutum. Members of this group include the most familiar disease-vectoring ticks. Phylogenetically, the ixodids are divided between two lineages. One, including only the genus Ixodes, is characterised by the absence of festoons and an anal groove that extends anteriorly from the anus. The other, containing the remaining ixodids (the Metastriata), has members that usually possesses festoons (regular subdivisions of the posterior margin of the idiosoma) and in which the anal groove, if present, is restricted to the posterior of the anus (Keirans 2009).

Characters (from Keirans 2009): Podonotal scutum present in larval and nymphal stages and in adult female; holonotal scutum present in male. Scutal ornamentation present or absent. Capitulum situated anteriorly in all active stages, visible when viewed from above. Palpi four-segmented; fourth segment usually inserted into a pit ventrally on segment III. Hypostome usually well armed with denticles, usually with a specific dental formula. Paired spiracular plates present in postlarval stages, situated dorsoventrally posterior to coxa IV.

<==Ixodidae [Ixodini]
    |  i. s.: Dermacentonomma Dias 1978 KDB02
    |         Palpoboophilus minningi Kishida 1936 TYM08
    |--Metastriata K09
    |    |  i. s.: Margaropus winthemi K09, B91
    |    |         Rhipicentor K09
    |    |         Nosomma K09
    |    |         Anomalohimalaya Hoogstraal, Kaiser & Mitchell 1970 K09, KDB02
    |    |         Cosmiomma hippopotamensis K09
    |    |--Haemaphysalis K09
    |    |--Rhipicephalinae WN01
    |    |    |--Rhipicephalus K09
    |    |    `--Dermacentor JR91
    |    |--Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad 1994 K09, KDB02 [Bothriocrotoninae]
    |    |    |--*B. glebopalma (Keirans, King & Sharrad 1994) [=Aponomma (*Bothriocroton) glebopalma] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. auruginans (Schulze 1936) [=Aponomma auruginans] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. concolor (Neumann 1899) [=Aponomma concolor] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. hydrosauri (Denny 1843) [=Aponomma hydrosauri; incl. Aponomma trachysauri Neumann 1899] KDB02
    |    |    `--B. undatum (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) KDB02
    |    `--Amblyomminae KDB02
    |         |--Amblyomma K09
    |         `--Hyalomma LD91
    |              |--H. anatolicum KK91
    |              |--H. asiaticum Sch. & Schl. 1929 P91
    |              |--H. dentatum Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 CF77
    |              |--H. detritum KK91
    |              |--H. dromedarii RK01
    |              |--H. marginatum R91
    |              |    |--H. m. marginatum R91
    |              |    `--H. m. rufipes (Koch 1844) R91, ADG91
    |              |--H. plumbeum KK91
    |              |--H. scupense KK91
    |              `--H. truncatum (Koch 1844) ADG91
    `--Ixodes Latreille 1795 KDB02 [Ixodinae, Prostriata K09]
         |  i. s.: I. anatis Chilton 1904 NS00
         |         I. australasiae Fabricius 1805 H01
         |         I. borealis T04
         |         I. canisuga LO91
         |         I. carinatus Kishida 1930 TYM08
         |         I. cornuatus R01
         |         I. coxalis Gervais 1842 H01
         |         I. crenulatus CF77
         |         I. fecialis R01
         |         I. flavipes [=Sarconissus flavipes] CF77
         |         I. fuscus CF77
         |         I. gibbosus KK91
         |         I. hirsti R01
         |         I. holocyclus Neumann 1899 KDB02
         |         I. kohlsi R01
         |         I. lacertae CF77
         |         I. kopsteini OW01
         |         I. lisphilus Kishida 1930 TYM08
         |         I. moluccus Doleschall 1859 D59
         |         I. ornithorhynchi Lucas 1846 H01
         |         I. ovatus (Neumann 1899) MN91
         |         I. phascolomyis MacAlister 1871 S69
         |         I. pictus CF77
         |         I. punctulatus Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 CF77
         |         I. putus T04
         |         I. reduvius K01 (see below for synonymy)
         |         I. rufus CF77
         |         I. sexpunctatus CF77
         |         I. tasmani R01
         |         I. tertiarius WP99
         |         I. trianguliceps K91
         |         I. trichosuri R01
         |         I. uriae R01
         |         I. vespertilionis HJH91
         |--I. (Ixodes) HRK91
         |--I. (Ixodiopsis Filippova 1957) HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) angustus Neumann 1899 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) eastoni Keirans & Clifford 1983 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) ochotonae Gregson 1941 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) pomarentzevi Serdyukova 1941 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) soricis Gregson 1942 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) stromi Filippova 1957 HRK91
         |    `--I. (I.) woodi Bishopp 1911 HRK91
         |--I. (Multidentatus Clifford, Sonenshine et al. 1973) HRK91
         |    `--I. (M.) laysanensis HRK91
         |--I. (Pholeoixodes Schulze 1942) HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) arboricola Schulze & Schlottke 1930 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) cookei Packard 1869 HRK91 [=I. (Ixodiopsis) cookei F91]
         |    |--I. (P.) hearlei Gregson 1941 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) hexagonus Leach 1815 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) lividus Koch 1814 HRK91
         |    `--I. (P.) marmotae Cooley & Kohls 1938 HRK91
         `--I. (Sternalixodes Schulze 1935) HRK91
              `--I. (S.) confusus HRK91

Bothriocroton undatum (Fabricius 1775) [=Acarus undatus, Aponomma undatum; incl. Aponomma decorosum (Koch 1867)] KDB02

Ixodes reduvius K01 [=Acarus reduvius CF77, Cynorhaestes reduvius CF77; incl. Ricinus caninus CF77, C. hermanni CF77, Ixodes marmoratus CF77, C. megathyreus CF77, Pediculus ovinus CF77, Acarus ricinoides CF77]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ADG91] Amoo, A. O. J., O. O. Dipeolu & L. N. Gichuru. 1991. Tick ecology: on-host population dynamics of ticks in the Coast Province of Kenya. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 461-468. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B91] Belozerov, V. N. 1991. Evolution of life cycles in ticks (Ixodidae) due to climate seasonality. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 135-139. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1-60, plates 1-18.

[F91] Filippova, N. A. 1991. A hypothesis for the palaeogenesis of the distribution of the main vectors for Lyme disease. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 109-118. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H01] Halliday, R. B. 2001. 250 years of Australian acarology. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 3-16. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[HRK91] Homsher, P. J., R. G. Robbins & J. E. Keirans. 1991. Scanning electron microscopy of Haller’s organ for subgeneric systematic studies in the genus Ixodes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 335-342. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[HJH91] Hubálek, Z., Z. Juřicová & J. Halouzka. 1991. Tick-borne viruses and bacteria isolated in Czechoslovakia. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 49-53. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[JR91] Jaworski, D. C., R. Rosell, L B. Coons & G. R. Needham. 1991. Evidence that a 90 kDa tick salivary gland polypeptide is a cement component. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 335-340. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KK91] Kamarinchev, B., T. Kovacheva, T. Christova, G. Georgieva & V. Zlatanova. 1991. Studies on mosquitoes and ticks as carriers of alpha-, flavi- and bunyaviruses. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 89-92. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 111-123. Texas Tech University Press.

[KDB02] Klompen, H., S. J. Dobson & S. C. Barker. 2002. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844. Systematic Parasitology 53: 101-107.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199-204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 311-369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[LD91] Leonovich, S. A., & F. Dusbábek. 1991. Pheromone sensory subsystem in ticks: correlation between structure of sensilla and evolution of behaviour. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 53-58. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LO91] Liebisch, A., & S. Olbrich. 1991. The hedgehog tick, Ixodes hexagonus Leach, 1815, as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 67-71. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MN91] Miyamoto, K., M. Nakao, N. Sato & M. Mori. 1991. Isolation of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes from tick vectors and feral rodents in Japan. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 125-132. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37-48.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[P91] Podboronov, V. M. 1991. Antibacterial protective mechanisms of ixodoid ticks. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 375-380. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R91] Rechav, Y. 1991. The ecology of the vectors of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 93-99. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RK01] Roe, R. M., V. Kallapur, P. A. Neese, C. S. Apperson & D. E. Sonenshine. 2001. Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis and reproduction in ticks: A critical re-examination of the evidence and a new perspective. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 604-611. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R01] Russell, R. C. 2001. The medical significance of Acari in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 535-546. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898. Band IV, Lieferung I. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WN01] Wang, H., & P. A. Nuttall. 2001. Characterisation of immunoglobulin G binding proteins in male Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 618-621. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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