Parasitidae

Poecilochirus necrophori, from RareSpecies.ru.


Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Gamasus, Pergamasus.

The Parasitidae are a group of free-living predatory mites (not, despite their name, parasites) that are primarily found in ground-level substrates where they feed on microarthropods and nematodes. Members of the Parasitidae are divided between the Pergamasinae, which are mostly found in stable soil, humus and moss habitats, and the Parasitinae, which are often found in more temporary debris. The group's misleading name comes from phoretic deutonymphs of Parasitinae on insects being mistaken for parasites; deutonymphs of Pergamasinae are not knwotn to be phoretic (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Adult dorsal shield entire or divided or with a pair of lateral incisions in female, entire with at most a transverse line of fusion of two shields in male. Female sternal shield with three pairs of setae; epigynal shield triangular, flanked by large discrete metasternal shields, and abutting or rarely coalescing with a ventrianal shield that is variously fused with podal, peritrematic or, more rarely, dorsal shield elements; presternal platelets frequently present. Tibia I typically with four ventral setae, six dorsal setae and two anterolateral setae (2 3/2, 3/2 2); tibia III with eight or nine setae (2 1/1, 2/1 1(2)); chaetotaxy of genu IV 2 2/1, 3/1 1. Palptarsal apotele three-timed. Female tocospermous. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of holoventral or sternitigenital shield, typically with highly developed spurs and apophyses on legs II; chelicerae with sperm-holding structure (spermatotreme) that is coalesced distally with movable digit. Larva without pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield reduced laterally, generally with four or five pairs of setae (without setae S4-S5), of shield sometimes absent; dorsal shield of deutonymph divided.

<==Parasitidae [Gamasidae, Neotocospermata, Parasitiae, Parasitina, Parasitoidea] S61
    |--Pergamasinae KA90
    |    |--Pergamasus S61
    |    `--Holoparasitus Oudemans 1936 KA90, S61 [incl. Ologamasus Berlese 1906 non Berlese 1888 S61]
    |         |--*H. calcaratus (Koch 1839) S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--H. berlesei Oudemans 1936 S61
    |         |--H. inornatus (Berlese 1906) S61 [=Gamasus (Ologamasus) inoratus S22]
    |         |--H. pollicipatus (Berlese 1903) S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         `--H. stramenti Karg 1971 D91
    `--Parasitinae D91
         |--Vulgarogamasus KA90
         |--Trachygamasus KA90
         |--Parasitellus fucorum LKW09, WP99
         |--Gamasodes KA90
         |    |--*G. spiniger Oudemans 1936 [=Gamasus spinipes Koch 1841 non Say 1821] S61
         |    |--G. bispinosus KA90
         |    `--G. queenslandicus LKW09
         |--Poecilochirus [Poecilochiridae] KA90
         |    |--*P. carabi Canestrini & Canestrini 1882 S61
         |    |--P. monospinosus A91
         |    `--P. necrophori Koh91
         `--Parasitus Latreille 1795 S61
              |--*P. fucorum (De Geer 1778) [=Acarus fucorum] S61
              |--P. americanus Koh91
              |--P. berlesei (Willmann 1935) D91
              |--P. bituberosus LKW09
              |--P. bombophilus Vitzthum 1930 S61
              |--P. coleoptratorum Koe91
              |--P. congener Koh91
              |--P. consanguineus S61
              |--P. diversus LKW09
              |--P. eta Oudemans & Voigts 1904 Koe91
              |--P. fimetorum (Berlese 1903) Koe91
              |--P. gregarius LKW09
              |--P. handschini (Schweizer 1922) S61
              |--P. jugulatus (Schweizer 1949) S61
              |--P. kraepelini Koh91
              |--P. lunaris Koh91
              |--P. lunarisimilis Schweizer 1961 S61
              |--P. lunulatus (Müller 1859) D91
              |--P. magnus (Kramer 1876) D91
              |--P. niveus Koh91
              |--P. numerus Koh91
              |--P. remberti Koh91
              |--P. reticulatus S61
              `--P. talparum Koh91

Parasitidae incertae sedis:
  Euparasitus similis DW10
  Schizosthetus LKW09
  Psilogamasus LKW09
  Gamasus CF77
  Pergamasellus S61
  Leptogamasus suecicus Trägårdh S61
  Eugamasus Berlese 1892 S61
    |--*E. magnus (Kramer 1870) [=Gamasus magnus; incl. E. magnus var. monticola Berlese 1906] S61
    |--E. cornutosimilis Schweizer 1949 S61
    |--E. crassitarsis Halbert 1923 S61
    |--E. furcatus (Canestrini 1882) S61 [=Gamasus (Eugamasus) furcatus S22]
    |--E. kobyi Schweizer 1961 S61
    |--E. kraepelini Berlese 1903 S61 [=Gamasus (Eugamasus) kraepelini S22]
    |--E. loricatus (Wankel 1861) S61 [=Gamasus (Eugamasus) loricatus S22]
    |--E. lunulatulus (Müller 1859) S61 [incl. Gamasus (Eugamasus) cornutus S22, S61]
    |--E. oudemansi [incl. E. oudemansi var. alpinus Schweizer 1949] S61
    |--E. spinosustarsis Schweizer 1961 S61
    |--E. trouessarti [=Gamasus (Eugamasus) trouessarti] S22
    `--E. zschokkei (Schweizer 1922) S61 (see below for synonymy)
  Amblygamasus Berlese 1904 S61
    |--A. basileus Schweizer 1961 S61
    |--A. mirabilis (Willmann 1951) [=Pergamasus mirabilis] S61
    |--A. septentrionalis S61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--A. tiberinus [=Gamasus (Amblygamasus) tiberinus] S22

Amblygamasus septentrionalis S61 [=Gamasus (Amblygamasus) septentrionalis S22; incl. A. septentrionalis var. bodanicus Schweizer 1961 S61, A. septentrionalis var. germanicus S61, A. septentrionalis var. helveticus Schweizer 1961 S61, A. septentrionalis var. norvegicus S61]

Eugamasus zschokkei (Schweizer 1922) S61 [=Gamasus (Eugamasus) zschokkei S22; incl. E. zschokkei var. fturi Schweizer 1949 S61]

*Holoparasitus calcaratus (Koch 1839) S61 [=Gamasus calcaratus S61, G. (Ologamasus) calcaratus S22; incl. H. calcaratus var. siculus (Berlese 1906) S61]

Holoparasitus pollicipatus (Berlese 1903) S61 [=Gamasus (Ologamasus) pollicipatus S22; incl. H. pollicipatus var. basileus Schweizer 1961 S61, H. pollicipatus var. calixus Schweizer 1961 S61, H. pollicipatus var. expuliger (Berlese 1906) S61, H. pollicipatus var. fibularius Schweizer 1961 S61, H. pollicipatus var. helveticus Schweizer 1961 S61, Gamasus (Ologamasus) pollicipatus var. pseudoperforatus S22]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A91] Axtell, R. C. 1991. Role of mesostigmatid mites in integrated fly control. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 639-646. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[D91] Dielmann, M. 1991. Computer in acarine taxonomy: a method for systematical analysis of the genus Pergamasus (Acari: Mesostigmata). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 239-248. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Koe91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749-758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Koh91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199-204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23-112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i-vii, 1-207.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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