Thoroughwax Bupleurum rotundifolium, copyright Nancy J. Ondra.

Belongs within: Apiaceae.

Bupleurum is a genus of mostly perennial herbs found primarily in the northern temperate zone.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous. Rootstock usually short, woody. Stem alternate or dichotomously branched, green or glaucous, base with or without fibrous remnant sheaths. Leaves entire, petioles sheathing; blade membranous, herbaceous or coriaceous, usually with parallel venation, base usually tapering into petiole. Cauline leaves often sessile, clasping, auriculate or perfoliate. Inflorescence loose, umbels compound, terminal and lateral; bracts several, conspicuous, often similar to uppermost leaves; rays few to many; bracteoles several, conspicuous. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals yellow, greenish-yellow, tinged purple or purple, oblong to orbicular, apex narrowly inflexed. Stylopodium conic, low-conic or discoid; styles short, often reflexed. Fruit oblong to ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, mericarps subpentagonal (rarely rounded) in cross section; ribs 5, filiform, prominent or obscure; vittae 1–3(–6) in each furrow, 2–6(–8) on commissure, sometimes obscure. Seed face plane. Carpophore 2-cleft to base.

    |--B. candolii O88
    |--B. falcatum ssp. falcatum O88
    |    |--B. f. ssp. f. var. falcatum O88
    |    `--B. f. ssp. f. var. gracillimum O88
    |--B. gracile PT98
    |--B. graminifolium C55a
    |--B. longicaule O88
    |--B. praealtum H91
    |--B. rigidum R-RR-GM-S98
    |--B. rotundifolium C55b
    |--B. salicifolium P02
    `--B. trichopodum Boissier & Spruner 1884 PL04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[P02] Perry, R. N. 2002. Hatching. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 147-169. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335-351.

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