Female Ornithonyssus bursa, copyright Marcelo de Campos Pereira.

Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Macronyssidae are a group of mites mostly ectoparasitic on reptiles, birds and mammals, in which the deuteronymphal stage of the life cycle is inactive and non-feeding (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Chelicerae elongate, edentate; tritosternum well developed, with laciniae; corniculi membranous, usually lobate. Palptrochanter often with raised medioventral keel. Leg coxa II with large anterior non-setigerous spur (rarely minute or absent), other coxae without spurs but occasionally with small ridges; genu and tibia I each with two anterolateral setae; genu IV typically with two ventral setae.

<==Macronyssidae [Macronyssinae] LKW09
    |--Mitonyssoides stercoralis Yunker, Lukoschus & Giesen 1990 SLH18
    |--Lepronyssoides LKW09
    |--Draconyssus LKW09
    |--Cryptonyssus desultorius M-M96
    |--Pellonyssus Clark & Yunker 1956 H98
    |    `--P. reedi (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) [=Steatonyssus reedi] H98
    |--Macronyssoides M-M96
    |    |--M. conciliatus M-M96
    |    `--M. kochi M-M96
    |--Radfordiella WK09
    |    |--R. anourae M-M96
    |    |--R. desmodi M-M96
    |    `--R. oricola M-M96
    |--Chiroptonyssus M-M96
    |    |--C. haematophagus M-M96
    |    |--C. robustipes M-M96
    |    `--C. venezolanus M-M96
    |--Parichoronyssus M-M96
    |    |--P. crassipes M-M96
    |    |--P. euthysternum M-M96
    |    |--P. radovskyi M-M96
    |    `--P. sclerus M-M96
    |--Steatonyssus Kolenati 1858 [incl. Ceratonyssus Ewing 1923] ET79
    |    |--*S. periblepharus Kolenati 1858 ET79
    |    |--S. (Steatonyssus) leptus M-M96
    |    |--S. murinus KK54
    |    |--S. musculi (Schrank 1803) [=Acarus musculi] E57
    |    `--S. patriciae Domrow 1969 H98
    |--Ophionyssus Mégnin 1884 (see below for synonymy) ET79
    |    |--*O. natricis (Gervais 1844) [=Dermanyssus natricis] ET79
    |    |--O. arnhemlandensis (Womersley 1956) [=Neoliponyssus arnhemlandensis, Sauronyssus arnhemlandensis] H98
    |    |--O. ehmanni Donrow 1985 H98
    |    |--O. galloticolus Fain & Bannert 2000 BKW00
    |    |--O. saurarum ET79
    |    |--O. scincorum Domrow et al. 1980 H98
    |    `--O. setosus BKW00
    |--Trichonyssus Domrow 1959 H98
    |    |--T. australicus (Womersley 1956) [=Chiroptonyssus australicus, Ichoronyssus australicus] H98
    |    |--T. caputmedusae Domrow 1986 H98
    |    |--T. lukoschusi Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98
    |    |--T. nixoni Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98
    |    |--T. solivagus Domrow 1986 H98
    |    |--T. streetorum Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 h98
    |    `--T. womerleyi Domrow 1959 H98
    |--Macronyssus Kolenati 1858 (see below for synonymy) ET79
    |    |--*M. longimanus (Kolenati 1857) [=Caris longimana] ET79
    |    |--M. aristippe (Domrow 1959) [=Ichoronyssus aristippe] H98
    |    |--M. crosbyi M-M96
    |    |--M. flavus Y91
    |    |--M. kolenatii ET79
    |    |--M. longisetosus M-M96
    |    |--M. leucippe (Domrow 1959) [=Ichoronyssus leucippe] H98
    |    |--‘Liponyssus’ sternalis Hirst 1921 [=*Hirstesia sternalis] E57
    |    `--M. unidens M-M96
    `--Ornithonyssus Sambon 1928 H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*O. sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago 1877) H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--O. acrobates Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98
         |--O. bacoti (Hirst 1913) [=Leiognathus bacoti, Bdellonyssus bacoti, Liponyssus bacoti] H98
         |--O. bursa (Berlese 1888) (see below for synonymy) H98
         |--O. campester Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98
         |--O. dasyuri Domrow 1983 H98
         |--O. latro Domrow 1963 H98
         |--O. petauri Michedzinski 1980 H98
         |--O. praedo Domrow 1971 H98
         |--O. stigmaticus Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98
         `--O. taphozous Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985 H98

Macronyssus Kolenati 1858 [incl. Allonyssus Buitendijk 1945, Hirstesia Fonseca 1948, Lepronyssus Kolenati 1858] ET79

Ophionyssus Mégnin 1884 [incl. Neoliponyssus Ewing 1929, Oudemansiella Fonseca 1948 non Speg. 1881 (ICBN), Sauronyssus Sambon 1928, Serpenticola Ewing 1923] ET79

Ornithonyssus Sambon 1928 H98 [incl. Bdellonyssus Fonseca 1941 H98, Fonsecaonyssus Radford 1950 ET79, Leiognathus Canestrini 1884 (preoc.) H98]

Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese 1888) [=Leiognathus bursa, Bdellonyssus bursa, Liponyssus bursa; incl. Le. morsitans Hirst 1915] H98

*Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago 1877) H98 [=Dermanyssus sylviarum H98, Fonsecaonyssus sylviarum H98, Leiognathus sylviarum E57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKW00] Bannert, B., H. Y. Karaca & A. Wohltmann. 2000. Life cycle and parasitic interaction of the lizard-parasitizing mite Ophionyssus galloticolus (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae), with remarks about the evolutionary consequences of parasitism in mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24: 597–613.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3-4): 121–135.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M-M96] Morales-Malacara, J. B. 1996. Mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) ectoparasites of bats in México. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 105–108. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[SLH18] Seeman, O. D., E. E. Lindquist & R. W. Husband. 2018. A new tribe of tarsonemid mites (Trombidiformes: Heterostigmata) parasitic on tetrigid grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Zootaxa 4418 (1): 1–54.

[WK09] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Oviposition and life stages. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 57–63. Texas Tech University Press.

[Y91] Yastrebtsov, A. V. 1991. Features of the embryonic development of gamasid mites (Parasitiformes, Gamasida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 115–119. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

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