Limnesiidae

Possible Tyrrellia, copyright Emile.


Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.
Contains: Protolimnesia, Neomamersa, Limnesia.

The Limnesiidae are a diverse group of water mites of questionable monophyly. Larvae, where known, are parasites of culicomorph Diptera. The limnesiids are divided between several subfamilies of diverse appearance. One possibly monophyletic assemblage, including the Neomamersinae, Psammolimnesia, Nicalimnesia, Stygolimnesia, Protolimnesiinae and Mixolimnesia, includes small, elongate and well-sclerotised taxa. Conversely, Kawamuracarus is a genus of large, soft-bodied species found in interstitial habitats in the Holarctic region (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with palpfemur, with extremely rare exceptions, bearing ventral seta; all females, and males of many genera, with genital acetabula borne on movable genital flaps. Larvae with cheliceral bases fused; two pairs of urstigmata borne distally between coxal plates I-II; legs with five movable segments; tibiae I-II bearing seven to eight setae (and two solenidia), including only three ventral setae, lacking either Ti8 and Ti9 or Ti10 and Ti11.

<==Limnesiidae
    |  i. s.: Guanacastacarus G07
    |         Heterolimnesia Lundblad 1941 H98
    |           `--H. tasmanica Lundblad 1941 H98
    |--Epallagopus [Epallagopodinae] WL09
    |    `--E. tecticoxalis WL09
    |--Psammolimnesia Cook 1974 S86 [Psammolimnesiinae WL09]
    |    |--P. costarriquena Cook 1980 S86
    |    `--P. mexicana Cook 1974 S86
    |--Rheolimnesia Lundblad 1953 [Rheolimnesiinae] RFF05
    |    |--R. motasi Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |--R. placibilis (Gerecke 1995) RFF05
    |    `--R. tronchonii Orghidan & Gruia 1983 RFF05
    |--+--Nicalimnesia Cook 1967 S86 [Nicalimnesiinae WL09]
    |  |    `--N. andha Cook 1967 S86
    |  `--Stygolimnesia Imamura 1979 S86 [Stygolimnesiinae WL09]
    |       |--S. baderi Imamura 1983 S86
    |       `--S. japonica Imamura 1979 S86
    |--Neotorrenticola Lundblad 1936 RFF05 [Neotorrenticolidae WL09]
    |    |--N. bidens Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |--N. chorreronica Gruia 1988 RFF05
    |    |--N. crassipes Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |--N. papillata Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |--N. plumipes Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |--N. sima Viets 1953 RFF05
    |    |--N. violacea Lundblad 1936 RFF05
    |    `--N. walteri Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |--Mixolimnesia Cook 1988 RFF05 [Mixolimnesiinae WL09]
    |    |--M. aranda Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. aspida Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. beschi Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. eremita Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. lemba Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. magnifica Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--M. pallida Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    `--M. ribagai Cook 1988 RFF05
    |--Kawamuracarus Uchida 1937 S86 [Kawamuracarinae WL09]
    |    |--K. chappuisi Motas & Tanasachi 1946 S86
    |    |--K. elongatus Uchida 1937 S86
    |    |--K. expansipes Cook 1980 S86
    |    |--K. longisetus Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--K. novus Cook 1980 S86
    |    |--K. polyporus Cook 1967 S86
    |    |--K. serratipalpis Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--K. similis Cook 1967 S86
    |    |--K. uniscutatus Cook 1967 S86
    |    `--K. vardaricolus Viets 1943 S86
    |--Protolimnesiinae WL09
    |    |--Protolimnesia WL09
    |    |--Siboneyacarus Orghidan 1975 S86
    |    |    `--S. sordidus Orghidan 1975 S86
    |    |--Crenolimnesia Lundblad 1938 RFF05
    |    |    `--C. placophora Lundblad 1938 RFF05
    |    |--Limnesides Lundblad 1936 RFF05
    |    |    `--L. epimeratus Lundblad 1936 RFF05
    |    `--Mixdea Orghidan & Gruia 1980 WL09, S86 [Mixdeinae]
    |         |--M. (Mixdea) composita Orghidan & Gruia 1980 S86
    |         `--M. (Tubomixdea Cook 1981) S86
    |              |--M. (T.) botosaneanui Cook 1981 S86
    |              `--M. (T.) voldroguea Cook 1981 S86
    |--Neomamersinae WL09
    |    |--Neomamersa WL09
    |    |--Arizonacarus WL09
    |    `--Meramecia Cook 1963 RFF05
    |         |--M. (Meramecia) S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) anisitsipalpis Cook 1963 S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) mexicana Cook 1980 S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) ocularis Cook 1963 S86
    |         |    `--M. (M.) perplexa Cook 1963 S86
    |         |--M. (Parameramecia Smith & Cook 1994) RFF05
    |         |    `--M. (P.) saltensis Fernández 2001 RFF05
    |         `--M. (Submeramecia Cook 1980) RFF05
    |              `--M. (S.) diamphida Cook 1980 RFF05
    |--Tyrrellinae WL09
    |    |--Neotyrrellia Lundblad 1938 RFF05
    |    |    |--N. anitahoffmannae WL09
    |    |    |--N. petricola Lundblad 1938 RFF05
    |    |    |--N. polypora Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    |    `--N. recurva Lundblad 1953 RFF05
    |    `--Tyrrellia Koenike 1895 RFF05
    |         |--T. australis Besch 1962 RFF05
    |         |--T. circularis WP99
    |         |--T. crenophila Lundblad 1938 RFF05
    |         |--T. longipes Cook 1980 RFF05
    |         |--T. noodti Besch 1962 RFF05
    |         |--T. petrophila Viets 1977 RFF05
    |         `--T. solivaga Cook 1980 RFF05
    `--Limnesiinae WL09
         |--Limnesia WL09
         |--Fijilimnesia WL09
         |--Physolimnesia Halik 1940 WL09, H98
         |    `--P. australis Halik 1940 [incl. Limnesia trituberculata Viets 1955] H98
         |--Timmsilimnesia Viets 1984 WL09, H98
         |    `--T. prehendens Viets 1984 H98
         |--Acantholimnesia Viets 1954 RFF05
         |    `--A. millepora Viets 1954 RFF05
         |--Tubophorella Viets 1978 RFF05
         |    |--T. amoena Viets 1978 H98
         |    |--T. australis Imamura 1984 H98
         |    `--T. multiacetabulata Fernández 1992 RFF05
         `--Centrolimnesia Lundblad 1935 RFF05
              |--C. bondi Lundblad 1935 RFF05
              |--C. boopis Gerecke, Fisher-Hartig & Steinitz-Kannan 1996 RFF05
              |--C. geijskesi Besseling 1949 RFF05
              |--C. geniculata Lundblad 1938 RFF05
              |--C. guarani Rosso de Ferradás & Böttger 1997 RFF05
              |--C. lundbladi Viets 1954 RFF05
              |--C. schadei Lundblad 1938 RFF05
              |--C. schubarti Viets 1938 RFF05
              `--C. vietsi Lundblad 1941 RFF05

Nomen nudum: Neotyrrellia paucipora Schwoerbel 1987 RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G07] Goldschmidt, T. 2007. Zoogeographical relationships of Central American water mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 83–95. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B. & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181–224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Last updated: 16 February 2019.

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