Elecampane Inula helenium, photographed by Karelj.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Filago.

The Inuleae is a group of composite-flowered plants in which the flower-heads are usually discoid, with outer ray-florets mostly absent or narrow and filiform. The receptacle bears chaffy scales in the subtribe Buphthalminae but is naked in Inula (Black & Robertson 1965). Elecampane Inula helenium, native to temperate Eurasia and naturalised in North America, is used in the production of absinthe in parts of Europe. Antennaria, catsfoots or pussytoes, is a genus of perennial, often matted and woolly, herbs found mostly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Flower-heads usually discoid, with all flowers tubular and bisexual (homogamous) or outer ones female and tubular or filiform, with small or irregular teeth or lobes or rarely with very short lobed ligules (heterogamous), or the heads rarely more or less dioecious, sometimes small and united in a compound globular, ovoid or oblong head or densely clustered and without a common involucre; involucral bracts often scarious, sometimes with petaloid radiating tips or quite inconspicuous; style-branches various; pappus usually of simple barbellate or plumose bristles, more rarely of scales with may be united in a small cup, or none; receptacle usually naked; leaves almost always alternate.

    |--Buphthalminae BR65
    |    |--Buphthalmum YY22
    |    `--Pallenis spinosa [=Asteriscus spinosus] BR65
    `--Inula TSR03 [Inulinae BR65]
         |--I. candida TSR03
         |    |--I. c. ssp. candida TSR03
         |    |--I. c. ssp. decalvans TSR03
         |    `--I. c. ssp. limonella TSR03
         |--I. conyza H91
         |--I. crithmoides M55
         |--I. graveolens BR65
         |--I. helenium BR65
         |--I. pulicaria C55a
         |--I. thapsoides Sprengel 1810 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
         |--I. verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
         |    |--I. v. ssp. verbascifolia TSR03
         |    |--I. v. ssp. aschersoniana TSR03
         |    |--I. v. ssp. heterolepis TSR03
         |    |--I. v. ssp. methanaea TSR03
         |    `--I. v. ssp. parnassica TSR03
         `--I. viscosa TKC07

Inuleae incertae sedis:
  Anisopappus PF02
    |--A. pinnatifidus CV06
    `--A. pseudopinnatifidus CV06
  Tessaria integrifolia N10, RJ11
  Stenachaenium S06
  Psilocarphus S06
    |--P. brevissimus H93
    |    |--P. b. var. brevissimus H93
    |    `--P. b. var. multiflorus H93
    |--P. elatior H93
    |--P. oregonus [=P. oreganus (l. c.)] H93
    `--P. tenellus H93
         |--P. t. var. tenellus H93
         `--P. t. var. globiferus [incl. P. tenellus var. tenuis] H93
  Filago S06
  Antennaria Gaertn. 1791 S06, KC01
    |--A. argentea H93
    |--A. corymbosa H93
    |--A. dimorpha H93
    |--A. flagellaris H93
    |--A. geyeri H93
    |--A. howellii [=A. neglecta var. howellii, A. neodioica ssp. howellii] H93
    |--A. luzuloides [incl. A. microcephala] H93
    |--A. margaritacea [=Gnaphalium margaritaceum] C55b
    |--A. marginata H93
    |--A. media [=A. alpina var. media] H93
    |--A. pulchella [incl. A. alpina var. scabra] H93
    |--A. racemosa H93
    |--A. rosea H93
    |    |--A. r. ssp. rosea H93
    |    `--A. r. ssp. confinis H93
    |--A. suffrutescens H93
    `--A. umbrinella H93
  Chevreulia S06
  Facelis S06
  Achyrocline S06
  Adenocaulon S06
    |--A. bicolor H93
    |--A. chilense D03
    `--A. himalaicum O88

Inula thapsoides Sprengel 1810 [incl. I. t. var. poiretii de Candolle 1836, I. verbascifolia Poiret 1813 (nom. rej. prop.) non (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.)] TSR03

Inula verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.) [=Conyza verbascifolia Willdenow 1803, I. bocconei Soldano 1986] TSR03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[TSR03] Tan, K., J. Suda & T. Raus. 2003. Proposal to conserve the name Inula verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. against I. verbascifolia Poir. (Asteraceae) and with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 358–359.

[TKC07] Tixier, M.-S., S. Kreiter & B. Cheval. 2007. Vineyard colonisation by predaceous mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) living in surrounding vegetation. A three year study in the south of France. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 475–487. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 21 December 2019.

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