Elecampane Inula helenium, photographed by Karelj.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Angianthus, Craspedia.

The Inuleae is a group of composite-flowered plants in which the flower-heads are usually discoid, with outer ray-florets mostly absent or narrow and filiform.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Flower-heads usually discoid, with all flowers tubular and bisexual (homogamous) or outer ones female and tubular or filiform, with small or irregular teeth or lobes or rarely with very short lobed ligules (heterogamous), or the heads rarely more or less dioecious, sometimes small and united in a compound globular, ovoid or oblong head or densely clustered and without a common involucre; involucral bracts often scarious, sometimes with petaloid radiating tips or quite inconspicuous; style-branches various; pappus usually of simple barbellate or plumose bristles, more rarely of scales with may be united in a small cup, or none; receptacle usually naked; leaves almost always alternate.

    |--Buphthalminae BR65
    |    |--Buphthalmum YY22
    |    `--Pallenis spinosa [=Asteriscus spinosus] BR65
    |--Athrixinae BR65
    |    |--Athrixia BR65
    |    |    |--A. athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |    |    |--A. a. var. athrixioides BR65
    |    |    |    `--A. a. var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |    `--A. croniniana BR65
    |    `--Podolepis BR65
    |         |--P. arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |         |--P. canescens BR65
    |         |--P. capillaris [=Siemssenia capillaris Steetz 1844-1845; incl. P. siemssenia von Mueller 1866] BR65
    |         |--P. gracilis OS04
    |         |--P. jaceoides (Sims) Druce 1917 BR65
    |         |--P. lessonii BR65
    |         |--P. microcephala KM08
    |         |--P. neglecta M65
    |         |--P. rugata BR65
    |         `--P. tepperi G04
    |--Inula TSR03 [Inulinae BR65]
    |    |--I. candida TSR03
    |    |    |--I. c. ssp. candida TSR03
    |    |    |--I. c. ssp. decalvans TSR03
    |    |    `--I. c. ssp. limonella TSR03
    |    |--I. conyza H91
    |    |--I. crithmoides M55
    |    |--I. graveolens BR65
    |    |--I. helenium BR65
    |    |--I. pulicaria C55
    |    |--I. thapsoides Sprengel 1810 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
    |    `--I. verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. verbascifolia TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. aschersoniana TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. heterolepis TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. methanaea TSR03
    |         `--I. v. ssp. parnassica TSR03
    `--Angianthinae BR65
         |--Basedowia tenerrima [=Humea tenerrima von Mueller 1896; incl. B. helichrysoides Pritzel 1918] BR65
         |--Eriochlamys behrii BR65
         |--Gnaphalodes uliginosum BR65
         |--Cephalipterum drummondii BR65
         |--Angianthus BR65
         |--Craspedia BR65
         |--Chthonocephalus BR65
         |    |--C. pseudevax BR65
         |    `--C. tomentellus KM08
         |--Gnephosis BR65
         |    |--G. arachnoidea BR65
         |    |--G. eriocarpa BR65
         |    |--G. gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    |--G. skirrophora [incl. G. codonopappa] BR65
         |    `--G. tenuissima KM08
         |--Myriocephalus BR65
         |    |--M. occidentalis GK00
         |    |--M. rhizocephalus [=Hyalolepis rhizocephala] BR65
         |    |    |--M. r. var. rhizocephala BR65
         |    |    `--M. r. var. pluriflorus BR65
         |    |--M. rudallii BR65
         |    `--M. stuartii [=Polycalymma stuartii] BR65
         `--Calocephalus BR65
              |--C. aervoides KM08
              |--C. brownii BR65
              |--C. citreus BR65
              |--C. dittrichii BR65
              |--C. drummondii BR65
              |--C. francisii KM08
              |--C. lacteus BR65
              |--C. multiflorus (see below for synonymy) BR65
              `--C. sonderi BR65

Inuleae incertae sedis:
  Anisopappus PF02
    |--A. pinnatifidus CV06
    `--A. pseudopinnatifidus CV06
  Haastia Hooker 1864 B93, A61
    |--H. montana Buchan. 1887 (n. d.) A61
    |--H. pulvinaris Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |--H. p. var. pulvinaris A61
    |    `--H. p. var. minor Laing 1912 A61
    |--H. recurva Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |--H. r. var. recurva A61
    |    `--H. r. var. wallii Cockayne 1918 A61
    `--H. sinclairii Hooker 1864 A61
         |--H. s. var. sinclairii A61
         `--H. s. var. fulvida Allan 1961 A61
  Pterygopappus lawrencei B93

Athrixia athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Panaetia athrixioides Sonder & von Mueller 1852; incl. A. tenella Bentham 1866] BR65

Athrixia athrixioides var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 [=A. tenella var. horripes Black 1929] BR65

Calocephalus multiflorus [=Pachysurus multiflorus Turczaninow 1851; incl. P. platycephalus von Mueller 1863, Calocephalus platycephalus (von Mueller) Bentham 1866] BR65

Gnephosis gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Cyathopappus gnephosioides; incl. G. cyathopappa, G. arachnoidea var. foliata] BR65

Inula thapsoides Sprengel 1810 [incl. I. t. var. poiretii de Candolle 1836, I. verbascifolia Poiret 1813 (nom. rej. prop.) non (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.)] TSR03

Inula verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.) [=Conyza verbascifolia Willdenow 1803, I. bocconei Soldano 1986] TSR03

Podolepis arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 [=Rutidosis arachnoidea Hooker 1848; incl. P. rhytidochlamys von Mueller 1864] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B93] Breitwieser, I. 1993. Comparative leaf anatomy of New Zealand and Tasmanian Inuleae (Compositae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 183-209.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 25-40.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[TSR03] Tan, K., J. Suda & T. Raus. 2003. (1582) Proposal to conserve the name Inula verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. against I. verbascifolia Poir. (Asteraceae) and with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 358-359.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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