Filaments and stalked cells of Tribonema minus, copyright D. J. Patterson & Craig Bailey.

Belongs within: Marista.

The Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae, are a group of algae found primarily in fresh water with smaller numbers of species in soil or marine habitats. The group includes both unicellular and filamentous forms.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Predominately coccoid or filamentous, rarely amoeboid, ciliated or capsoid; swimming cells with two cilia, one anteriorly directed and bearing tripartite tubular hairs and one posteriorly directed and lacking tripartite hairs; four microtubular kinetosomal roots and one large striated kinetosomal root or rhizoplast; ciliary transitional helix with six apparently double gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraciliary rod; cell walls typical, probably of cellulose and either entire or H-shaped bisectional walls; chloroplast with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1,2, violaxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucherioxanthin.

Xanthophyceae [Heterochlorida, Heterokontae, Heteromonadea, Xanthophyta]
    |  i. s.: Ostreobium [Phyllosiphonaceae] S57
    |           |--O. quekettii Bornet & Flahault 1889 S57
    |           `--O. reineckei Bornet 1896 L27
    |         Chlorobotrydaceae A90
    |           |--Chlorellidium A90
    |           |--Chlorobotrys A90
    |           `--Gloeobotrys A90
    |--Vaucheriaceae [Vaucheriales] C-SC06
    |    |--Dichotomosiphon tuberosus SG05
    |    `--Vaucheria C-SC06
    |         |--V. bursata C-SC06
    |         |--V. conroyi Habeeb 1984 C91
    |         |--V. litoria Bang & Agardh in Agardh 1821 S57
    |         `--V. sessilis SG05
    `--Tribonematales [Botrydiales, Heterotrichales, Mischococcales] A90
         |  i. s.: Characiopsis AS12
         |         Chloromeson AS12
         |         Ophiocytium capitatum AS12, M70
         |           |--O. c. var. capitatum M70
         |           `--O. c. var. longispinum M70
         |         Sphaerosorus AS12
         |--Heterococcus C-SC06 [Heterodendraceae A90]
         |    `--H. caespitosus C-SC06
         `--+--Mischococcus sphaerocephalus KI02, C-SC06
            `--+--Pseudopleurochloris antarctica KI02, C-SC06
               `--+--Pleurochloridaceae A90
                  |    |--Pleurochloris meiringensis C-SC06
                  |    |--Botrydiopsis intercedens A90, C-SC06
                  |    |--Chlorocloster A90
                  |    |--Ellipsoidion A90
                  |    `--Nephrodiella A90
                  `--+--Heterothrix debilis C-SC06
                     `--+--Botrydium [Botrydiaceae] C-SC06
                        |    `--B. stoloniferum C-SC06
                        `--+--Xanthonema debile KI02
                           `--+--Bumilleriopsis KI02 [Chlorotheciaceae A90]
                              |    `--B. filiformis KI02
                              `--Tribonemataceae [Tribonemaceae] A90
                                   |--Bumilleria A90
                                   |--Heterotrichella A90
                                   `--Tribonema C-SC06
                                        |--T. aequale KI02
                                        |--T. bombycinum SG05
                                        |--T. gayanum G00
                                        |--T. intermixtum C-SC06
                                        `--T. minus HM88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69-96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388-420.

[C91] Conroy, J. C. 1991. Acarology—a modern science. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 5-16. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G00] Gromov, B. V. 2000. Algal parasites of the genera Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium from Cienkovski’s “Monadinea” group as representatives of a new class. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (5): 517-525 (transl. Entomological Review 80 (Suppl. 1): S26-S34).

[HM88] Hoshaw, R. W., & R. M. McCourt. 1988. The Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta): A twenty-year update of research. Phycologia 27 (4): 511-548.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31-47.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126-185.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.–Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1-56.

[SG05] Sau, A. & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 63-86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1-289.

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