Dipsacaceae

Common teasel Dipsacus silvestris, copyright Evelyn Simak.


Belongs within: Dipsacales.

The Dipsacaceae is a family of herbs and shrubs found in temperate regions of Eurasia and Africa. Members of this family have flowers borne together on a common receptacle, superficially similar to those of the composite-flowered plants in the Asteraceae.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs or undershrubs with opposite exstipulate leaves; flowers sessile in a head on a common receptacle or floral base, which is furnished with scales between flowers and surrounded by involucre of bracts, each flower also having a loose outer calyx (or involucel) enclosing the real calyx and ovary and probably formed of connate bracts. Flowers bisexual, slightly irregular; calyx small, continuous with the thin receptacle (hollow floral axis or receptacular tube) above which it is narrowed and then spread outward in teeth or awns; corolla funnel-shaped, with four or five lobes, of which the lowest is the largest; stamens never more than four, inserted in corolla-tube; ovary inferior, adnate to receptacle, one-celled, with one pendulous anatropous ovule; style filiform, stigma entire or notched; fruit small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded, surmounted by persistent calyx and enveloped in outer calyx.

Dipsacaceae
    |--Succisa YY22
    |--Pterocephalus hookeri O88
    |--Knautia integrifolia (Linnaeus) Bertoloni 1835 PL04
    |--Lomelosia GR98
    |    |--L. brachiata [incl. Tremastelma palaestinum] GR98
    |    `--L. calocephala GR98
    |--Cephalaria H91
    |    |--C. alpina C55a
    |    `--C. transsylvanica H91
    |--Scabiosa K03
    |    |--S. atropurpurea BR65
    |    |--S. columbaria C55b
    |    |--S. mansenensis K03
    |    |--S. maritima BR65
    |    `--S. stellata PT01
    `--Dipsacus CD07
         |--D. ferox BR65
         |--D. fullonum BR65
         |--D. inermis O88
         |    |--D. i. var. inermis O88
         |    `--D. i. var. mitis O88
         |--D. laciniatus V09
         |--D. sativus (Linnaeus) Honck. 1782 CD07
         `--D. silvestris BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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