Venter (a), dorsum (b) and mandibles (c) of female Gymnolaelaps canestrinii, from Schweizer (1961).

Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Hirstionyssus (Hirstionyssus), Haemogamasus, Androlaelaps, Laelaps, Pneumolaelaps, Laelaspis, Myrmozercon, Hypoaspis, Pseudoparasitus, Cosmolaelaps, Stratiolaelaps.

The Laelapidae are a diverse group of mites including free-living parasites found in soil or animal nests, as well as parasites of mammals. They are divided between several subfamilies, some of which have been recognised as distinct families. These include the Hypoaspidinae, often collected in soil and litter though some are associates of other arthropods. The Melittiphidinae are found in close association with ants and bees and may be present in host nests in high numbers. The Laelapinae are primarily nest parasites of rodents with some species associated with bats or primates. The Haemogamasinae are a Holarctic group including both haematophagous and saprophagous species with some being obligate parasites of small mammals or birds (Lindquist et al. 2009). Haemogamasines are distinguished by a markedly hypertrichous dorsal shield, together transverse rows of denticles on the hypognathal groove (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Fixed cheliceral digit present; male chelicera with spermadactyl. Subcapitulum with internal malae usually well developed, with fimbriate lateral margins and equal to or longer than corniculi; three pairs of hypostomatic setae. Tritosternum well developed, with laciniae. Genu I with two anterolateral setae; tibia I with two anterolateral and usually two ventral setae, including av2; genu IV usually with two posterolateral setae, including pl2.

<==Laelapidae [Laelaptidae, Pseudoparasitidae]
    |--Alphalaelaps [Alphalaelapinae] LKW09
    |    `--A. aplodontiae LKW09
    |--Acanthochelinae LKW09
    |    |--Acanthochela chilensis LKW09
    |    `--Lukoschus maresi LKW09
    |--Myonyssus Tiraboschi 1904 ET79 [incl. Tetragonyssus Ewing 1923 ET79; Myonyssinae LKW09]
    |    |--*M. decumani Tiraboschi 1904 ET79, H98
    |    |--M. gigas ET79
    |    `--M. rossicus K91
    |--Mesolaelaps Hirst 1926 non Schulz 1906 H98 [incl. Heterolaelaps Hirst 1926 H98; Mesolaelapinae LKW09]
    |    |--M. anomalus (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps anomalus] H98
    |    |--M. antipodianus (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps antipodianus, Heterolaelaps antipodianum, H. antipodianus] H98
    |    |--M. australiensis (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps australiensis, M. australiense] H98
    |    |--M. bandicoota (Womersley 1956) [=Hypoaspis bandicoota] H98
    |    |--M. lagotisinus (Hirst 1931) [=Laelaps lagotisinus; incl. M. thalacomys Womersley 1956] H98
    |    `--M. sminthopsis (Womersley 1954) [=Laelaps sminthopsis] H98
    |--Hirstionyssinae HY75
    |    |--Echinonyssus Hirst 1925 FH93
    |    |    `--E. isabellinus (Oudemans 1913) [=Liponyssus isabellinus] FH93
    |    `--Hirstionyssus Fonseca 1948 HY75
    |         |  i. s.: H. apodemi K91
    |         |         H. bisetosus Allred 1957 M-PV-G01
    |         |         H. eusoricis K91
    |         |         H. isabellinus K91
    |         |         H. latiscutatus (de Meillon & Lavoipierre 1944) L55
    |         |         H. lunatus Strandtmann & Yunker 1966 HY75
    |         |         H. microchelae Strandtmann & Yunker 1966 HY75
    |         |         H. minutus Strandtmann & Yunker 1966 HY75
    |         |         H. panamensis Strandtmann & Yunker 1966 HY75
    |         `--H. (Hirstionyssus) HY75
    |--Haemogamasinae [Haemogamasidae, Liponyssidae, Liponyssinae] LKW09
    |    |--Ischyropoda LKW09
    |    |--Haemogamasus FH93
    |    |--Brevisterna LKW09
    |    |    |--B. morlani Standtmann & Allred 1956 M-PV-G01
    |    |    `--B. utahensis (Ewing 1933) M-PV-G01
    |    |--Ichoronyssus Kolenati 1858 E57 [incl. Plesiolaelaps Womersley 1957 H98]
    |    |    |--*I. scutatus (Kol. 1856) [=Dermanissus scutatus] E57
    |    |    `--I. miniopteri (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |    `--Eulaelaps Berlese 1904 ET79, FH93 [incl. Rhinolaelaps Fonseca 1960 FH93]
    |         |--*E. stabularis (Koch 1839) ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. citellus Radford 1942 FH93
    |         |--E. cricetuli LKW09
    |         |--E. novus Vitzthum 1924 S61
    |         |--E. oudemansi Turk 1945 H98
    |         |--E. pachypus (Hermann 1804) [=Laelaps pachypus] S61
    |         `--E. phalacrus Domrow 1960 D60
    |--Laelapinae [Holostaspini, Laelaptinae] LKW09
    |    |--Hymenolaelaps princeps LKW09
    |    |--Steptolaelaps LKW09
    |    |--Gigantolaelaps wolffsohni (Oudemans 1910) L07
    |    |--Androlaelaps LKW09
    |    |--Laelaps FH93
    |    |--Mysolaelaps Fonseca 1935 LKW09, FH93
    |    |    `--M. parvispinosus Fonseca 1936 FH93
    |    |--Ondatralaelaps Evans & Till 1965 ET79
    |    |    `--*O. multispinosus (Banks 1910) ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Neolaelaps Hirst 1926 LKW09, H98
    |    |    |--N. spinosus (Berlese 1910) [=Leiognathus spinosus] H98
    |    |    `--N. vitzthumi Domrow 1961 H98
    |    `--Holostaspis Kolenati 1858 ET79, FH93
    |         |--*H. isotricha Kolenati 1858 ET79
    |         |--H. acuta (Michael 1891) [=Laelaps acuta] FH93
    |         |--H. favosa Müller 1860 FP60
    |         |--H. oophila ET79 [=Oolaelaps oophilus AL37]
    |         `--H. parvulus AL37
    |--Melittiphidinae LKW09
    |    |--Stigmatolaelaps LKW09
    |    |--Xylocolaelaps LKW09
    |    |--Melittiphisoides LKW09
    |    |--Pneumolaelaps LKW09
    |    |--Laelaspis LKW09
    |    |--Melittiphis Berlese 1918 FH93
    |    |    `--*M. alvearius (Berlese 1895) ET79, FH93 [=Laelaps (Iphis) alvearius ET79]
    |    |--Bisternalis Hunter 1963 LKW09, FH93
    |    |    |--B. hunteri Baker, Delfinado-Baker & Ordaz 1983 FH93
    |    |    |--B. mexicanus Baker, Delfinado-Baker & Ordaz 1983 FH93
    |    |    `--B. rettenmeyeri Hunter 1963 FH93
    |    |--Myrmozercon LKW09
    |    `--Gymnolaelaps Berlese 1916 LKW09, FH93 [incl. Laeliphis Hull 1925 FH93]
    |         |--*G. myrmecophila (Berlese 1892) [=Laelaps myrmecophilus] ET79
    |         |--G. canestrinii Berlese 1902 S61
    |         |--G. krantzi (Hunter 1967) [=Hypoaspis (Gymnolaelaps) krantzi] FH93
    |         |--G. mexicana (Banks 1915) [=Neoberlesia mexicana] FH93
    |         |--G. missouriensis (Ewing 1909) (see below for synonymy) FH93
    |         |--G. tonsilis (Karg 1989) [=Pseudoparasitus (Gymnolaelaps) tonsilis] FH93
    |         `--G. vitzthumi Womersley 1956 FH93
    `--Hypoaspidinae [Hypoaspididae] LKW09
         |--Hypoaspis LKW09
         |--Blaberolaelaps matthiesensis LKW09, S96
         |--Gromphadorholaelaps Till 1969 LKW09, Ti69
         |    `--*G. schaeferi Till 1969 Ti69
         |--Pseudoparasitus LKW09
         |--Cosmolaelaps LKW09
         |--Stevacarus Hunter 1970 S96
         |--Hyletastes Gistel 1848 E57, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--*H. globulus (Koch 1839) [=Iphis globulus, Eumaeus globulus] FH93
         |--Hunteracarus Costa 1975 S96
         |    `--H. womersleyi Costa 1975 H98
         |--Ayersacarus Hunter 1964 S96
         |    |--A. gelidus Hunter 1965 SL71
         |    |--A. gressitti Hunter 1964 SL71
         |    |--A. plumapilus Hunter 1964 SL71
         |    `--A. strandtmanni Hunter 1964 SL71
         |--Neohypoaspis Delfinado-Baker, Baker & Roubik 1983 S96, FH93
         |    `--N. ampliseta Delfinado-Baker, Baker & Roubik 1983 FH93
         |--Raymentia Womersley 1956 LKW09, H98
         |    |--*R. anomala Womersley 1956 WB02, H98
         |    |--R. eickwortiana Walter, Beard et al. 2002 WB02
         |    `--R. walkeriana Walter, Beard et al. 2002 WB02
         |--Alloparasitus Berlese 1920 ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*A. angulatus (Berlese 1920) [=Pseudoparasitus angulatus] S61
         |    |--‘Euandrolaelaps’ karawaiewi W88
         |    `--A. sardous (Berlese 1911) (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |--Dicrocheles Krantz & Khot 1962 LKW09, FH93
         |    |--*D. phalaenodectes (Treat 1954) KK62, FH93 [=Myrmonyssus phalaenodectes FH93]
         |    |--D. eothenes Treat 1970 H98
         |    |--D. hippeoides Treat 1978 FH93
         |    |--D. pelates Treat 1969 Tr69
         |    `--D. scedastes Treat 1969 FH93
         |--Stratiolaelaps LKW09
         |--Coleolaelaps Berlese 1914 LKW09, FH93
         |    |--C. bakeri Costa & Hunter 1970 FH93
         |    |--C. brachysetus Costa & Hunter 1970 FH93
         |    |--C. camini Costa & Hunter 1970 FH93
         |    |--C. gracilis Costa & Hunter 1970 FH93
         |    `--C. krantzi Costa & Hunter 1970 FH93
         |--Ololaelaps Berlese 1904 LKW09, FH93 [incl. Pristolaelaps Womersley 1956 FH93]
         |    |--O. placidus (Banks 1895) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--O. hemisphaerus Berlese 1916 FH93 [=O. hemisphaera B16]
         |    |--O. obovata (Womersley 1960) [=Pristolaelaps obovata] H98
         |    |--O. paratasmanicus Ryke 1963 SL71
         |    |--O. placentulus (Berlese 1887) [=Laelaps placentula] FH93
         |    |--O. sellnicki Bregetova & Koroleva 1964 FH93
         |    `--O. tasmanicus (Womersley 1956) [=Pristolaelaps tasmanicus, Pseudoparasitus tasmanicus] H98
         |--Cosmetolaelaps Womersley 1959 S96
         |    |--C. desecti Costa 1981 H98
         |    |--C. dolicacanthus (Canestrini 1884) [=Laelaps dolicacanthus, L. dolichacanthus (l. c.)] H98
         |    |--C. microsetus Costa 1981 H98
         |    |--C. oligosetus Costa 1981 H98
         |    |--C. reticulatus Costa 1981 H98
         |    `--C. wallacei Costa 1981 H98
         `--Geolaelaps Berlese 1924 WO89 [=Gaeolaelaps Trägårdh 1952 FH93]
              |--*G. aculeifer (Canestrini 1884) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
              |--G. angustus WO89
              |--G. corpolongus S96
              |--G. disjunctus (Hunter & Yeh 1969) [=Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) disjuncta] FH93
              |--G. neaculeifer WO89
              |--G. nolli (Karg 1962) [=Hypoaspis nolli] FH93
              |--G. oreithyiae Walter & Oliver 1989 FH93
              `--G. similisetae (Karg 1965) [=Hypoaspis similisetea] FH93

Laelapidae incertae sedis:
  Scissuralaelaps Womersley 1945 H98
    |--S. innotensis Halliday 1993 H98
    `--S. queenslandica Womersley 1945 H98
  Ljunghia Oudemans 1932 S95
    |--L. bristowi (Finnegan 1933) S95 [=Copriphis (Pelethiphis) bristowi WY88]
    |--L. hoggi Domrow 1975 S95
    |--L. minor Fain 1989 S95
    |--L. pulleini Womersley 1956 S95
    |--L. rainbowi Domrow 1975 S95
    `--L. selenocosmiae Oudemans 1932 S95
  Dynastaspis Costa 1971 FH93
    |--D. hercules (Costa 1976) [=Dynastes hercules non (Linnaeus 1758) (not preoc. as in dif. gen.)] FH93
    `--D. walhallae Costa 1971 FH93
  Dycinetonyssus Moss & Funk 1965 FH93
    `--D. hystricosus Moss & Funk 1965 FH93
  Dynatochela Keegan 1950 FH93
    `--D. prima Keegan 1950 FH93
  Eumellitiphis Turk 1948 FH93
    `--E. mellitus Turk 1948 FH93
  Laelaspisella Marais & Loots 1969 FH93
    `--L. foramenis (Karg 1989) [=Hypoaspis (Laelaspisella) foramenis] FH93
  Pililaelaps Radford 1947 (see below for synonymy) FH93
    `--P. longisetus (Banks 1910) [=Laelaps longiseta] FH93
  Zontia Turk 1948 FH93
    `--Z. meliponensis Turk 1948 FH93
  Phytojacobsonia Vitzthum 1925 V25
    `--*P. irregularis Vitzthum 1925 V25
  Cosmiphis bosschai (Oudemans 1901) [=Emeus bosschai] V25
  Andreacarus Radford 1953 H98
    |--A. aegleis Domrow 1972 H98
    |--A. anadema Domrow 1978 H98
    |--A. radfordi Domrow 1963 H98
    |--A. synoecus Domrow 1978 H98
    `--A. tauffliebi Domrow 1963 H98
  Berlesia Canestrini 1884 H98
    `--B. rapax Canestrini 1884 [=Berlese rapace (l. c.)] H98
  Bewsiella Domrow 1958 H98
    `--B. fledermaus Domrow 1958 [=B. fledermans (l. c.)] H98
  Chalaza Domrow 1990 H98
    `--C. novena Domrow 1990 H98
  Conolaelaps Womersley 1959 H98
    `--C. coniferus (Canestrini 1884) [=Laelaps coniferus, L. conifer (l. c.)] H98
  Domrownyssus Evans & Till 1966 H98
    `--D. dentatus (Domrow 1961) [=Pneumonyssus dentatus] H98
  Iphiolaelaps Womersley 1956 H98
    `--I. myriapoda Womersley 1956 H98
  Laelapsella Womersley 1955 H98
    `--L. humi Womersley 1955 [=Hypoaspis humi, Laelaps humi] H98
  Myrmeciphis Hull 1923 H98
    `--M. crawleianus Hull 1923 H98
  Peramelaelaps Womersley 1956 H98
    `--P. bandicoota Womersley 1956 H98
  Rhodacantha Domrow 1979 H98
    |--R. nelsoni Domrow 1979 H98
    `--R. tenax Domrow 1979 H98
  Thadeua Domrow 1977 [incl. Australolaelaps Womersley 1956 non Girault 1925] H98
    |--T. greeni (Domrow 1966) [=Australolaelaps greeni] H98
    |--T. mitchelli (Womersley 1956) [=Australolaelaps mitchelli] H98
    |--T. rosamondae (Domrow 1973) [=Australolaelaps rosamondae] H98
    |--T. serrata Domrow 1977 H8
    `--T. validipes (Domrow 1955) [=Echinonyssus validipes, Australolaelaps validipes] H98
  Trichosurolaelaps Womersley 1956 H98
    |--T. crassipes Womersley 1956 [=T. ocrassipes] H98
    |--T. dixous Domrow 1972 [=T. dixoa] H98
    |--T. fallax Domrow 1972 H98
    |--T. harrisoni Domrow 1961 H98
    |--T. marra Domrow 1972 H98
    `--T. striatus Domrow 1958 H98
  Laelaspoides ordwayae Eickwort 1966 WB02, FH93 [=Pseudoparasitus ordwayae FH93]
  Dyscinetonyssus hysticosus WB02
  Cyclothorax carcinicola von Frauenfeld 1868 J60
  Aspidilaelaps Trägårdh 1949 J60
    |--*A. mirabilis Trägårdh 1949 J60
    `--A. pagurophilus (André 1937) [=Laelaps pagurophilus] J60

Alloparasitus Berlese 1920 ET79, FH93 [incl. Euandrolaelaps Bregetova in Ghilarov 1977 FH93, Halbertia Hull in Turk & Turk 1952 FH93]

Alloparasitus sardous (Berlese 1911) [=Laelaps (Androlaelaps) sardous; incl. Hypoaspis laevis var. pilifer Oudemans 1912] FH93

*Eulaelaps stabularis (Koch 1839) ET79, FH93 [=Gamasus stabularis FH93, Laelaps stabularis S61; incl. L. oribatoides Michael 1892 FH93, L. pedalis Banks 1910 FH93, L. propheticus Banks 1910 FH93]

*Geolaelaps aculeifer (Canestrini 1884) FH93 [=Laelaps aculeifer FH93, Hypoaspis (Gaeolaelaps) aculeifer M83, L. (Eulaelaps) aculeifer S22; incl. Androlaelaps concisus Womersley 1956 H98, Geolaelaps concisus H98, Hypoaspis consisa (l. c.) H98]

Gymnolaelaps missouriensis (Ewing 1909) [=Hyletastes missouriensis; incl. Laelaspis austriacus Sellnick in Jaus 1935, Pseudoparasitus obsoletus Berlese 1916] FH93

Hyletastes Gistel 1848 E57, FH93 [=Eumaeus Koch 1842 (preoc.) FH93, Hyletastea (l. c.) FH93, Iphis Koch 1839 non Koch 1835 FH93; Hyletastinae]

Ichoronyssus miniopteri (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) [=Neospinolaelaps miniopteri, Spinolaelaps miniopteri; incl. Plesiolaelaps miniopterus Womersley 1957, S. miniopterus] H98

Ololaelaps placidus (Banks 1895) FH93 [=Laelaps placidus FH93; incl. L. flavus Ewing 1909 FH93, L. magnichela Ewing 1909 FH93, Laelaps (Hypoaspis) tumidulus S61, S22, L. (H.) venetus Berlese 1904 FH93, *Ololaelaps venetus ET79]

*Ondatralaelaps multispinosus (Banks 1910) ET79, FH93 [=Laelaps multispinosus FH93; incl. La. parvanalis Willmann 1952 FH93, Liponyssus spiniger Ewing & Stover 1915 FH93]

Pililaelaps Radford 1947 [incl. Banksia Radford 1942 non Voigts & Oudemans 1905, Rad Baker & Wharton 1952] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

Last updated: 13 April 2021.

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