Eviphidoidea

Thinoseius spinosus, copyright Steve Coulson.


Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Pachylaelapidae, Leptolaelapidae, Macrochelidae, Parholaspididae.

The Eviphidoidea are a group of primarily soil- and litter-dwelling predatory mites. Many species have become adapted to transient habitats such as dung and carrion through phoretic associations with flying insects for dispersal (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Adult dorsal shield entire; sternal shield of female with 3-4 pairs of setae, metasternal setae on small shields that are amalgamated with adjacent sternal-endopodal elements or present as discrete shields, occasionally inserted free in the integument; preendopodal platelets present or absent, female with a ventrianal or anal shield. Tibia I with 1 posteroventral seta, 2-3 posterodorsal setae, and 1 or 2 anterolateral setae (1(2) 3/2, 2(3)/1 2), tibia III with 7-8 setae (1(2) 1/1, 2/1 1). Palptarsal apotele 2-3-tined, epistome variously produced. Female podospermous, sacculus of the "A" or laelapid type. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of a holoventral or sternitigenital shield; spematodactyl arises either from internal or external face of movable digit, free distally. Dorsal shield of deutonymph divided or entire; protonymph with 8-11 pairs of pygidial setae; larva with or without pygidial shield.

<==Eviphidoidea LKW09
    |  i. s.: Bulbogamasus [Bulbogamasidae] LKW09
    |           `--B. sinicus LKW09
    |--+--Pachylaelapidae K91
    |  `--+--Leptolaelapidae K91
    |     `--+--Macrochelidae K91
    |        `--Parholaspididae K91
    `--Eviphididae [Eviphidini] K91
         |  i. s.: Scamiphis LKW09
         |         Rafaphis LKW09
         |         Scarabacariphis grandisternalis LKW09
         |         Canestriniphis Potter & Johnston 1976 FH93
         |           `--C. megalodacne Potter & Johnston 1976 FH93
         |         Iphidiosoma S61
         |           |--I. bennwili Schweizer 1961 S61
         |           `--I. fimetarium S61
         |--Thinoseius Halbert 1920 [incl. Gammaridacarus Canaris 1962, Ligialaelaps Radford 1942; Thinoseiinae] ET79
         |    |--*T. berlesei Halbert 1920 ET79 [incl. Lasioseius fucicola Halbert 1920 ET79, T. fucicola S79]
         |    |--T. acuminatus ET79
         |    |--T. brevisternalis (Canaris 1962) [=Gammaridacarus brevisternalis] FH93
         |    |--T. hirschmanni P94
         |    |--T. kargi Hirschmann 1966 H66
         |    |--T. orchestoideae (Hall 1912) [=Seius orchestoideae] FH93
         |    |--T. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66
         |    `--T. spinosus (Willmann 1939) (see below for synonymy) FH93
         `--Eviphidinae KA90
              |--Scamaphis Karg 1976 ET79
              |    `--*S. equestris (Berl. 1911) [=Iphis (Pelethiphis) equestris; incl. S. exanimis Karg 1976] ET79
              |--Evimirus Karg 1963 ET79
              |    |--*E. uropodinus (Berlese 1904) ET79, FH93 [=Eviphis uropodina FH93]
              |    `--E. pulcherpori Karg 1989 FH93
              |--Crassicheles Karg 1963 ET79
              |    |--*C. concentricus (Oudemans 1904) [=Eviphis concentricus] ET79
              |    `--C. holsaticus ET79
              |--Scarabaspis Womersley 1956
              |    |--*S. inexpectatus (Oudemans 1905) ET79 [=Eumaeus inexpectatus ET79, Iphidozercon inespectatus S61]
              |    |--S. orientalis (Berlese 1920) [=Iphidozercon orientalis; incl. S. aspera Womersley 1956] H98
              |    `--S. rykei LKW09
              |--Alliphis Halbert 1923 ET79
              |    |--*A. halleri (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) ET79 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--A. alpinus Schweizer 1961 S61
              |    `--A. oviforme (Schweizer 1949) [=Ameroseius oviforme] S61
              |--Copriphis Berlese 1910 ET79
              |    |--*C. pterophilus (Berl. 1882) [=Iphis pterophilus] ET79
              |    |--C. (Pelethiphis) dermanyssoides Berlese 1911 FH93
              |    |--C. elongatus Berlese 1911 FH93
              |    |--C. hastatellus RK91
              |    |--C. orbinellus Schweizer 1949 S61
              |    `--C. variola Schweizer 1949 S61
              `--Eviphis Berlese 1903 [incl. Iphidoides Oudemans 1904, Iphis Koch 1835] FH93
                   |--*E. pyrobolus (Koch 1839) [=Iphis pyrobolus, Eumaeus pyrobolus] ET79
                   |--E. drepanogaster LKW09
                   |--E. exemplaris Vitzthum 1925 V25
                   |--E. halleri S22
                   |--E. ostrinus (Koch 1835) [=*Iphis ostrinus] FH93
                   |--E. rufus Oudemans 1914 V25
                   `--E. stephaniniarus LKW09

*Alliphis halleri (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) ET79 [=Gamasus halleri ET79; incl. A. alpinus Schweizer 1961 FH93, Copriphis (Pelethiphis) crinitus var. curtipilus Berlese 1911 FH93, Eviphis siculus Oudemans 1905 FH93, Alliphis siculus FH93]

Thinoseius spinosus (Willmann 1939) [=Lasioseius spinosus; incl. L. spinatus Sellnick 1940, L. uncinatus Sellnick 1940] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[K91] Karg, W. 1991. The integration of morphologic, biogeographic and palaeogeographic studies to reveal the phylogeny of predatory mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 121–127. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[RK91] Royce, L. A., & G. W. Krantz. 1991. A new rearing method for nematophagous mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 619–622. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S79] Schuster, R. 1979. Soil mites in the marine environment. Recent Advances in Acarology 1: 593–602.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

Last updated: 16 March 2019.

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