Phytoseioidea

Podocinum pacificum, copyright Pfliegler Walter.


Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Blattisociinae, Platyseiinae, Euseius, Phytoseius, Amblyseius, Neoseiulini, Typhlodromus.

The Phytoseioidea are a diverse group of mites, best known as predators but also including parasitic, fungivorous and pollen-feeding species (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Female and male dorsal shield usually entire, occasionally divided. Female sternal shield usually with three pairs of setae (metasternal setae on separate platelets or free in soft integument) but rarely with two or fewer pairs of setae; epigynal shield usually with one pair of setae, or these on soft integument flanking shield, shield free posteriorly from ventrianal or, rarely, anal shield. Male with sternitigenital shield usually separate from ventrianal shield or with line of fusion evident when connected; ventrianal shield with anterolateral margins not incised or eroded and with posterolateral margins free from dorsal shield; ventrianal shield rarely divided into ventral and anal shield. Femur I usually with 11-12 setae, including three ventral setae and 4-5 dorsal setae; tibia I with 2-3 ventral setae, 4-6 dorsal setae and 1-2 anterolateral setae; tibia III with 7-8 setae (1 1/1, 2/1 1 or 2 1/1, 2/1 1), rarely nine when pl2 present. Palptarsal claw usually two-tined (three-tined in Podocinidae). Female podospermous; sperm induction pores on sternal region between bases of coxae III-IV; each major sperm duct leading to often sclerotised spermathecal calyx, with associated vesicle, atrium and minor duct. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of sternal region, with or without spurs or modified spinelike setae on legs II and sometimes III-IV; spermatodactyl on movable cheliceral digit simple and fingerlike to variously modified, elongated, or elaborated in shape. Larva with or without pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield with 5-8 pairs of setae, setae S4-S5 usually on shield; dorsal shield of deutonymph entire, with lateral incisions or divided if divided in adult.

<==Phytoseioidea
    |--Blattisociidae LKW09
    |    |--Blattisociinae LKW09
    |    `--Platyseiinae LKW09
    |--Podocinidae LKW09
    |    |--Andregamasus LKW09
    |    |--Podocinella plumosa LKW09
    |    `--Podocinum KA90
    |         |--P. pacificum KA90
    |         `--P. sagax LKW09
    |--Otopheidomenidae LKW09
    |    |  i. s.: Orthopteroseius sinicus K09
    |    |--Katydiseiinae LKW09
    |    |    |--Katydiseius nadchatrami K09
    |    |    `--Eickwortius LKW09
    |    |--Otopheidomeninae LKW09
    |    |    |--Otopheidomenis zalelestes LKW09
    |    |    |--Noctuiseius LKW09
    |    |    `--Prasadiseius LKW09
    |    `--Treatiinae LKW09
    |         |--Hemipteroseius indicus LKW09
    |         |--Treatia LKW09
    |         |--Entomoseius LKW09
    |         `--Nabiseius LKW09
    `--Phytoseiidae CM03
         |  i. s.: Euseius CM03
         |         Galendromus mcgregori GFP01
         |         Meyerius latus P01
         |         Iphiseius degenerans SG01 [=Amblyseius degerans M91]
         |         Indoseiulus ricini G01
         |         Gnorimus chaudhrii WL01
         |         Okiseius subtropicus WL01
         |         Proprioseius C-R02
         |           |--P. aberrans HBR80
         |           `--P. schichai C-R02
         |         Typhloseiulus R-CT01
         |           |--T. eliahuswirskii R-CT01
         |           `--T. simplex R-CT01
         |         Paraphytoseius WL01
         |           |--P. cracentis WL01
         |           |--P. multidentatus WL01
         |           `--P. seychellensis W99
         |         Amblydromella R-CT01
         |           |--A. athenas R-CT01
         |           |--A. crypta R-CT01
         |           `--A. rhenanoides R-CT01
         |         Typhlodromina YM91
         |         Typhlodromulus limonicus YM91
         |         Anthoseius Z91
         |           |--A. bakeri Z91
         |           |--A. caudiglans Z91
         |           |--A. pirianykae Z91
         |           |--A. recki C91
         |           `--A. verrucosus Z91
         |         Mumaseius C91
         |           |--M. bakeri C91
         |           `--M. sternlichti C91
         |         Typhloctonus tiliarum C91
         |         Neoseiulella F05
         |           |--N. arinoi Moraza, Peña-Estévez & Ferragut 2005 F05
         |           |--N. longiseta Moraza, Peña-Estévez & Ferragut 2005 F05
         |           `--N. novaezealandiae W99
         |         Proprioseiopsis [incl. Amblyseiulus, Neoledius, Proprioseiulus] KA90
         |           `--P. rotundus KA90
         |         Seius bdelloides WP99
         |         Phytoscutus WP99
         |         Metaseiulus longipilus P91
         |--Phytoseiinae CM03
         |    |--Phytoseius WL01
         |    `--Chantia paradoxa CM03
         |--Amblyseiinae CM03
         |    |  i. s.: Phytoseiulus CM03
         |    |           |--P. longipes P01
         |    |           |--P. macropilis SS01
         |    |           `--P. persimilis Athias-Henriot 1957 HP91 [incl. P. riegeli M91]
         |    |         Macroseius biscutatus CM03
         |    |         Typhlodromalus lailae KA90, SG01
         |    |         Typhlodromips KA90
         |    |           |--T. montdorensis SG01
         |    |           `--T. tetranychivorus Z02
         |    |--Amblyseius CM03
         |    |--Arrenoseiini CM03
         |    |--Neoseiulini CM03
         |    `--Kampimodromus Z91 [Kampimodromini CM03]
         |         `--K. aberrans (Oudemans 1930) Z91 [=Amblyseius aberrans M91]
         `--Typhlodrominae CM03
              |--Typhlodromus CM03
              |--Australiseiulus angophorae CM03
              |--Gigagnathus CM03
              |--Chanteius CM03
              |    |  i. s.: C. contiguus [incl. Chiliseius (l. c. for Chileseius) (Chiliseius) lieni Tseng 1975] CM03
              |    `--C. (Evanseius Wainstein 1962) CM03
              |         `--‘Typhlodromus’ arboreus Chant 1957 (see below for synonymy) CM03
              `--Paraseiulus CM03
                   |--P. amaliae C91
                   |--P. erevenicusa C91
                   |--P. soleiger C91
                   |--P. subsoleiger C91
                   |--P. talbii CM03
                   `--‘Neoseiulus’ yugoslavicus Mijuskovic & Tomasevic 1975 CM03

‘Typhlodromus’ arboreus Chant 1957 [incl. T. anchialus Kennett 1958, Chanteius (*Evanseius) anchialus] CM03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM03] Chant, D. A., & J. A. McMurtry. 2003. A review of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Part I. Neoseiulini new tribe. International Journal of Acarology 29 (1): 3-46.

[C91] Çobanoglu, S. 1991. The distribution of phytoseiid species (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in important apple growing areas of Turkey. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 565-570. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: Status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137-154.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[GFP01] Gispert, C., C. Farrar & T. M. Perring. 2001. Seasonal abundance of the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and a predatory mite, and their response to sulfur treatment on commercial date palms Phoenyx dactilifera L. in southern California. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 403-408. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[HBR80] Hansell, R. I. C., F. L. Bookstein & H. J. Rowell. 1980. Operational point homology by Cartesian transformation to standard shape: examples from setal positions in phytoseiid mites. Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 43-49.

[HP91] Horn, D. J., D. K. Pearl, R. Bartoszynski & D. B. Kallander. 1991. Refinement of a stochastic model of spider mite predator-prey interactions. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 667-674. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 64-82. Texas Tech University Press.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583-665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M91] McMurtry, J. A. 1991. Augmentative releases to control mites in agriculture. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 151-158. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[P91] Petrushov, A. Z. 1991. Selection and mechanisms of ambush resistance in Metaseiulus occidentalis N. (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 741-748. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[P01] Pringle, K. L. 2001. Biological control of tetranychid mites in South African apple orchards. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 429-435. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SS01] Saha, K., A. K. Somchoudhury, P. K. Sarkar & S. K. Gupta. 2001. Effect of temperature on the rate of development, fecundity, longevity, sex ratio and mortality of Amblyseius coccosocius Ghai and Menon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), an important biocontrol agent against tea red spider mite in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 470-472. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SG01] Steiner, M. Y., & S. Goodwin. 2001. Phytoseiids with potential for commercial exploitation in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 476-483. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197-200.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WL01] Wu, W.-N., & W.-M. Lan. 2001. The phytoseiid mites of major crops in China. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 530-532. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[YM91] Yaninek, J. S., & G. J. de Moraes. 1991. A synopsis of classical biological control of mites in agriculture. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 133-149. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z91] Zacharda, M. 1991. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, 1857 (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a unique predator for biological control of phytophagous mites in Czechoslovakia. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 205-210. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27-34.

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