Mesostigmata

Sejus togatus, dorsal (left) and ventral views, copyright Edenis.


Belongs within: Parasitiformes.
Contains: Trigynaspida, Uropodina, Gamasina.

The Mesostigmata are a taxonomically and ecologically diverse group of mites in which the venter of the subcapitulum bears a pair of corniculi together with at most four pairs of setae, and the bases of the chelicerae are surrounded by a sclerotised ring that usually projects above into an epistome. Major subgroups of the Mesostigmata include the Sejoidea, a group of densely setose mites with fragmented dorsal and ventral plates. The greater number of species of Sejoidea are included in the family Sejidae, females of which have a distinct pygidial shield that often bears a pair of posterior horn-like processes (Lindquist et al. 2009).

<==Mesostigmata [Gamasida, Gamasini, Gamasoidea, Monogynaspides, Trichopygidiina]
    |--Sejoidea [Liroaspina, Sejida, Sejina] L91
    |    |--Uropodella Berlese 1888 FH93 [Uropodellidae LKW09]
    |    |    |--U. laciniata Berlese 1888 [incl. U. camini Hirschmann & Zierngiebl-Nicol 1984] FH93
    |    |    `--U. krantzi Hirschmann & Zirngiebl-Nicol 1984 FH93
    |    |--Ichthyostomatogasteridae LKW09
    |    |    |--Japanoasternolaelaps LKW09
    |    |    |--Archaeopodella Athias-Henriot 1977 LKW09, H98
    |    |    |    `--A. scopulifera Athias-Henriot 1977 H98
    |    |    `--Asternolaelaps Berlese 1923 [incl. Ichthystomatogaster Sellnick 1953] ET79
    |    |         |  i. s.: A. australis Womersley & Domrow 1959 H98
    |    |         |--*A. (Asternolaelaps) fecundus Berlese 1923 [incl. Ichthystomatogaster nyhleni Sellnick 1953] ET79
    |    |         `--A. (Parasternolaelaps Athias-Henriot 1972) LKW09
    |    |              `--A. (*P.) castrii LKW09
    |    `--Sejidae [Liroaspidae, Liroaspoidea, Seiidae] LKW09
    |         |--Epicroseius Berlese 1905 FH93
    |         |--Adenosejus krantzi LKW09
    |         |--Africasejus LKW09
    |         |--Zuluacarus LKW09
    |         |--Liroaspis Banks 1902 H98
    |         |    |--*L. americana Banks 1902 E57, FH93 [=Sejus americanus FH93]
    |         |    `--L. acanthurus (Canestrini 1884) [=Sejus acanthurus, Seius acanthurus, Zercon acanthurus] H98
    |         `--Sejus Koch 1836 ET79 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--*S. togatus Koch 1836 ET79 [=Liroaspis togatus S61]
    |              |--S. aciculatus Evans & Hyatt 1960 FH93
    |              |--S. armatus (Fox 1947) [=Liroaspis armatus] FH93
    |              |--S. baloghi LKW09
    |              |--S. borealis (Berlese 1904) K91
    |              |--S. insulanus Trägårdh 1931 T31
    |              |--‘Seius’ italicus Berlese 1916 H98
    |              |--S. necorniger (Oudemans 1903) K91
    |              |--S. paricornis Berlese 1916 H98
    |              |--S. porosus (Domrow 1957) [=Epicroseius porosus] H98
    |              |--S. sanborni Packard 1888 FH93
    |              |--S. serratus (Halbert 1915) K91 [=*Microcheles serratus S58, Zercon serratus S58]
    |              `--‘Willmannia’ sejiformis QA91
    `--+--Trigynaspida L91
       `--Monogynaspida L91
            |--Uropodina LKW09
            |--Gamasina LKW09
            |--Heatherella Walter 1997 H98 [Heatherellidae, Heatherellina LKW09, Heatherelloidea]
            |    |--*H. acanthocharis Walter 1997 W97
            |    `--H. callimaulos Walter 1997 H98
            |--Microgynioidea [Microgyniina] LKW09
            |    |--Nothogynus Walter & Krantz 1999 [Nothogynidae] WK99
            |    |    |--*N. klompeni Walter & Krantz 1999 WK99
            |    |    `--N. camini Walter & Krantz 1999 WK99
            |    `--Microgyniidae LKW09
            |         |--Microgynium Trägåardh 1942 FH93
            |         |    |--M. incisum Krantz 1961 FH93
            |         |    `--M. rectangulatum WK99
            |         `--Microsejus Traegardh 1942 ET79
            |              `--*M. truncicola Traegardh 1942 ET79
            `--Heterozerconoidea [Heterozerconina] LKW09
                 |--Discozerconidae LKW09
                 |    |--Discomegistus Trägårdh 1911 FH93
                 |    |    `--*D. pectinatus Trägårdh 1911 FH93
                 |    `--Discozercon Berlese 1910 FH93
                 |         |--*D. mirabilis Berlese 1910 V25
                 |         `--D. derricki Domrow 1956 H98
                 `--Heterozerconidae LKW09
                      |--Afroheterozercon ancoratus LKW09
                      |--Amheterozercon amphisbaenae [=Zeterohercon amphisbaenae] LKW09
                      |--Narceoheterozercon ohioensis LKW09
                      |--Allozercon Vitzthum 1924 V25
                      |    `--*A. fecundissimus Vitzthum 1924 V25
                      `--Heterozercon Berlese 1888 FH93
                           |--*H. degeneratus Berlese 1888 V25
                           |--H. audax Berlese 1910 [incl. H. elapsus Vitzthum 1924] V25
                           |--H. cautus Berlese 1923 V25
                           `--H. latus LKW09

Mesostigmata incertae sedis:
  Streptolaelaps heteromys Furman 1955 QV01
  Tricholaelaps myonysognathus Grochovskaya & Mguen-Xuan-Hoe 1961 MZ91
  Spelaeorhynchus [Spelaeorhynchidae] LKW09
    |--S. chilonycteris M-M96
    `--S. praecursor LKW09
  ‘Nicoletia’ Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 non Gervais 1842 CF77
    `--*N. cornuta Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 CF77
  Trachynotus CF77
    |--T. cadaverinus S22
    `--T. troguloides [incl. T. elongatus] CF77
  Toxopeusia Oudemans 1927 [Toxopeusiidae] O28
    |--T. strandi Oudemans 1927 O28
    `--T. vitzthumi Oudemans 1927 O28
  Neoberlesia equitans AL37

Sejus Koch 1836 ET79 [incl. Dwigubskyia Oudemans 1936 ET79, Microcheles S58, Willmannia Balogh 1938 FH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373–383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L91] Lehtinen, P. T. 1991. Phylogeny and zoogeography of the Holothyrida. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 101–113. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed., pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[MZ91] Meng Y.-C., Zhuge H.-X., Lan M.-Y. & Zhou H.-F. 1991. Experimental study on transmission of haemorrhagic fever with remal syndrome virus by mites, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 35–39. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[M-M96] Morales-Malacara, J. B. 1996. Mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) ectoparasites of bats in México. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 105–108. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[QA91] Quintero, M. T., & H. A. Acevedo. 1991. Studies on deep litter mites on farms in Mexico. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 443–448. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QV01] Quintero, M. M. T., M. Vargas, B. S. Hernández, P García & N. J. Otero. 2001. Ectoparasitic mites on Heteromys gaumeri in the south of Yucatan, Mexico. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 583–585. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[S58] Sellnick, M. 1958. Die familie Zerconidae Berlese. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 3: 313–368.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[W97] Walter, D. E. 1997. Heatherellidae—a new family of Mesostigmata (Acari: Parasitiformes) based on two new species from rainforest litter in Australia. International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 167–175.

[WK99] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 1999. New early derivative mesostigmatans from Australia: Nothogynus n. g., Nothogynidae n. fam. (Mesostigmata: Microgyniina). International Journal of Acarology 25: 67–76.

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