Myrmicinae

Cataulacus granulatus, copyright N. Budianggoro.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Sima, Oligomyrmex, Podomyrma, Chelaner, Aphaenogaster, Myrmica, Epopostrumiti, Solenopsidini, Monomorium, Meranoplini, Vollenhovia, Tetramorium, Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Temnothorax, Strumigeniti, Pheidole, Attini, Orectognathus.

The Myrmicinae is a large clade of often smaller ants including nearly half of the world's ant genera (Heterick 2009). Some myrmicines are known for their potent stings; these include the harvester ants of the genus Pogonomyrmex, the fire ants (Solenopsis) and the electric ant Wasmannia auropunctata. The Pogonomyrmex harvester ants get their vernacular name from their habit of collecting seeds for food; they are found in deserts of North and South America. Cataulacus is a genus of arboreally or subarboreally nesting ants found in warmer regions of the Old World, characterised by a broad, flattened head that in some species may be used to close up the entrance to the nest.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Head with frontal lobes expanded to cover all or part of antennal insertions; pronotum and mesonotum fused to form one segment (promesonotum); waist consisting of two distinct segments (petiole and postpetiole), with postpetiole distinctly separate from remaining abdominal segments which are smoothly rounded, presclerites of postpetiole meeting but usually not fused; hind tibiae with at most a simple spur (sometimes absent); tarsal claws simple.

<==Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae]
    |--+--Pogonomyrmex BS06
    |  |    |--P. badius ES12
    |  |    |--P. barbatus H79
    |  |    |--P. californicus BM76
    |  |    |--P. rugosus H79
    |  |    `--P. subdentatus BS06
    |  `--+--Myrmica BS06
    |     `--Manica Jurine 1807 BS06, B03
    |          |--M. hunteri [incl. M. aldrichi] WW90
    |          `--M. bradleyi BS06
    `--+--Cataulacus Smith 1853 SB08, B03
       |    |--*C. taprobanae Smith 1853 B03
       |    |--C. granulatus (Latreille 1802) [=Formica granulata] B03
       |    |--C. hispidulus E89
       |    |--C. horridus N-ZLI11
       |    |--C. latus Forel in Grandidier 1892 B03
       |    |--C. muticus Emery 1889 B03
       |    |--C. reticulatus E89
       |    `--C. simoni Emery 1893 B03
       `--+--+--+--Acanthognathus ocellatus SB08
          |  |  `--Epopostrumiti BS06
          |  `--+--Solenopsidini BS06
          |     `--+--Monomorium SB08
          |        `--Myrmicaria Saunders 1841 BS06, B03 [incl. Heptacondylus Smith 1858 B03, Physatta Smith 1858 B03]
          |             |--*M. brunnea Saunders 1841 (see below for synonymy) B03
          |             |--M. birmana Forel 1902 [=M. arachnoides race birmana] B03
          |             |--M. eumenoides A61
          |             |--M. exigua BS06
          |             `--M. subcarinata E89
          `--+--+--+--Meranoplini SB08
             |  |  `--Proatta butteli SB08
             |  `--+--Myrmecina Curtis 1829 BS06, B03
             |     |    |--*M. graminicola (Latreille 1802) [=Formica graminicola; incl. M. latreillei Curtis 1829] TB85
             |     |    |--M. rugosa Forel 1902 TB85
             |     |    `--M. striata Emery 1889 B03
             |     `--+--+--+--Vollenhovia BS06
             |        |  |  `--Tetramorium SB08
             |        |  `--+--Tetrataner BS06
             |        |     `--Rhopalomastix Forel 1900 BS06, TB85
             |        |          `--*R. rothneyi Forel 1900 TB85
             |        `--+--Cardiocondyla BS06
             |           `--+--Leptothorax BS06
             |              `--Temnothorax BS06
             `--+--+--+--Wasmannia auropunctata SB08
                |  |  `--Blepharidatta brasiliensis SB08
                |  `--+--Pilotrochus besmerus BS06
                |     `--Strumigeniti SB08
                `--+--+--Basiceros [Basicerotini] SB08
                   |  |    `--B. manni SB08
                   |  `--Eurhopalothrix Brown & Kempf 1961 BS06, TB85
                   |       |--*E. bolaui (Mayr 1870) [=Rhopalothrix bolaui] TB85
                   |       |--E. australis Brown & Kempf 1960 TB85
                   |       |--E. emeryi (Forel 1912) [=Rhopalothrix emeryi] TB85
                   |       |--E. procera (Emery 1897) [=Rhopalothrix procera] TB85
                   |       `--E. seguensis N-ZLI11
                   `--+--Tranopelta gilva SB08
                      `--+--+--Pheidole SB08
                         |  `--+--Procryptocerus scabriusculus SB08
                         |     `--Cephalotes Latreille 1802 SB08, L02
                         |          `--*C. atratus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Formica atrata L02]
                         `--+--Attini SB08
                            `--+--Orectognathus SB08
                               `--Daceton [Dacetini, Dacetiti] SB08
                                    `--D. armigerum Latreille 1802 [incl. Myrmecia cordata Fabricius 1805] TB85

Myrmicinae incertae sedis:
  Megalomyrmex WB03
  Lenomyrmex WB03
  Zacryptocerus GE05
  Sima B03
  Liomyrmex Mayr 1865 B03
    |--*L. coecus B03
    `--L. aurianus Emery 1889 B03
  Laparomyrmex E89
  Oligomyrmex WW90
  Xiphomyrmex Forel 1887 B03
    `--X. tenuicrinis Emery 1914 E14
  Phalacromyrmex B83
  Melissotarsus B83
  Anillomyrma H09
  Podomyrma TB85
  Ankylomyrma H09
  Harpogoxenus WW90
  Ephebomyrmex WW90
  Triglyphothrix Forel 1890 B03
    |--*T. walshi Forel 1890 B03
    |--T. decamera Forel 1902 B03
    |--T. musculus Forel 1902 B03
    |--T. obesa (André 1887) [=Tetramorium obesum] B03
    |--T. orissana Forel 1902 [=T. striatidens orissana] B03
    `--T. striatidens (Emery 1889) [=Tetramorium obesum striatidens] B03
  Novomessor cockerelli WW90, C90
  Macromischa WW90
  Veromessor WW90
    |--V. lariversi WW90
    |--V. pergandei TN62
    `--V. smithi WW90
  Lordomyrma Emery 1897 TB85
    |--*L. furcifera Emery 1897 TB85
    |--L. leae Wheeler 1919 TB85
    `--L. punctiventris Wheeler 1919 TB85
  Paratopula N-ZLI11
  Acanthomyrmex Emery 1893 B03
    |--*A. luciolae Emery 1893 B03
    `--A. ferox N-ZLI11
  Lophomyrmex Emery 1892 B03
    |--*L. quadrispinosus (Jerdon 1851) [=Ocodoma quadrispinosa] B03
    |--L. bedoti Emery 1893 B03
    `--L. burmanus Emery 1893 B03
  Recuvidris N-ZL11
  Rotastruma N-ZL11
  Secostruma N-Zl11
  Trichomyrmex Mayr 1865 B03
    `--*T. rogeri Mayr 1865 B03
  Trigonogaster Forel 1890 B03
    `--*T. recurvispinosa Forel 1890 B03
  Stereomyrmex Emery 1901 B03
    `--*S. horni Emery 1901 B03
  Atopomyrmex André 1889 B03
    |--*A. mocquerysi B03
    `--A. ceylonicus Emery 1901 B03
  Holcomyrmex Mayr 1878 B03
    |--*H. scabriceps Mayr 1878 B03
    |--H. criniceps Mayr 1878 [incl. H. crinicipitoscabriceps Forel 1902] B03
    |--H. glaber André 1883 [incl. H. glaber var. clarus Forel 1902, H. glabrocriniceps Forel 1902] B03
    `--H. muticus Emery 1887 B03
  Calyptromyrmex Emery 1887 TB85
    |--*C. beccarii Emery 1887 TB85
    `--C. schraderi Forel 1901 TB85
  Chelaner TB85
  Machomyrma Forel 1895 TB85
    `--*M. dispar (Forel 1895) [=Liomyrmex (*Machomyrma) dispar] TB85
  Peronomyrmex Viehmeyer 1922 TB85
    `--*P. overbecki Viehmeyer 1922 TB85
  Rhopalothrix Mayr 1870 TB85
    |--*R. ciliata Mayr 1870 TB85
    `--R. orbis Taylor 1968 TB85
  Rhoptromyrmex Mayr 1901 TB85
    |--*R. globulinodis Mayr 1901 TB85
    |--R. melleus (Emery 1897) [=Tetramorium melleum] TB85
    `--R. wroughtoni Forel 1902 TB85 [=Tetramorium wroughtoni B03]
  Aphaenogaster BS06
  Messor Forel 1890 BS06, B03
    |--*M. barbarus (Linn. 1767) B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. b. barbarus MS01
    |    `--M. b. striaticeps MS01
    |--M. andrei BS06
    |--M. denticornis BS06
    `--M. himalayanus (Forel 1902) [=Stenamma (Messor) barbarum himalayanum] B03
  Stenammini H09
    |--Stenamma dyscheres BS06
    `--Rogeria H09
         |--R. flavigaster (Clark 1938) H09, TB85 [=Xiphomyrmex flavigaster H09, Chelaner flavigaster H09]
         `--R. stigmatica E14
              |--R. s. stigmatica E14
              `--R. s. sublevinodis Emery 1914 E14

*Messor barbarus (Linn. 1767) B03 [=Formica barbara B03; incl. Atta instabilis Smith 1858 B03, Messor barbarus var. instabilis B03, M. barbarus var. lobulifera Emery in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01, Aphaenogaster barbara var. punctata Forel 1886 B03]

*Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders 1841 [incl. Myrmica fodiens Jerdon 1851, Myrmicaria fodiens, Myrmicaria brunnea var. subcarinata] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[SB08] Schultz, T. R. & S. G. Brady. 2008. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (14): 5435–5440.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TN62] Tevis, L., Jr & I. M. Newell. 1962. Studies on the biology and seasonal cycle of the giant red velvet mite, Dinothrombium pandorae (Acari, Trombidiidae). Ecology 43 (3): 497–505.

[WB03] Ward, P. S., & S. G. Brady. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 361–386.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Last updated: 25 September 2017.

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