Myrmicinae

Cataulacus granulatus, copyright N. Budianggoro.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Sima, Oligomyrmex, Myrmica, Aphaenogaster, Epopostrumiti, Solenopsidini, Monomorium, Strumigeniti, Pheidole, Attini, Meranoplini, Vollenhovia, Tetramorium, Leptothorax, Cardiocondyla.

The Myrmicinae is a large clade including nearly half of the world's ant genera (Heterick 2009). Some myrmicines are known for their potent stings; these include the harvester ants of the genus Pogonomyrmex, the fire ants (Solenopsis) and the electric ant Wasmannia auropunctata. The Pogonomyrmex harvester ants get their vernacular name from their habit of collecting seeds for food; they are found in deserts of North and South America.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Head with frontal lobes expanded to cover all or part of antennal insertions; pronotum and mesonotum fused to form one segment (promesonotum); waist consisting of two distinct segments (petiole and postpetiole), with postpetiole distinctly separate from remaining abdominal segments which are smoothly rounded, presclerites of postpetiole meeting but usually not fused; hind tibiae with at most a simple spur (sometimes absent); tarsal claws simple.

<==Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae]
    |--+--Pogonomyrmex BS06
    |  |    |--P. barbatus H79
    |  |    |--P. californicus BM76
    |  |    |--P. rugosus H79
    |  |    `--P. subdentatus BS06
    |  `--+--Myrmica BS06
    |     `--Manica Jurine 1807 BS06, B03
    |          |--M. hunteri [incl. M. aldrichi] WW90
    |          `--M. bradleyi BS06
    `--+--Cataulacus Smith 1853 SB08, B03
       |    |--*C. taprobanae Smith 1853 B03
       |    |--C. granulatus (Latreille 1802) [=Formica granulata] B03
       |    |--C. hispidulus E89
       |    |--C. horridus N-ZLI11
       |    |--C. latus Forel in Grandidier 1892 B03
       |    |--C. muticus Emery 1889 E89
       |    |--C. reticulatus E89
       |    `--C. simoni Emery 1893 B03
       |--+--Aphaenogaster BS06
       |  |--Messor Forel 1890 BS06, B03
       |  |    |--*M. barbarus (Linn. 1767) B03 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |    |    |--M. b. barbarus MS01
       |  |    |    `--M. b. striaticeps MS01
       |  |    |--M. andrei BS06
       |  |    |--M. denticornis BS06
       |  |    `--M. himalayanus (Forel 1902) [=Stenamma (Messor) barbarum himalayanum] B03
       |  `--Stenammini H09
       |       |--Stenamma dyscheres BS06
       |       `--Rogeria H09
       |            |--R. flavigaster [=Xiphomyrmex flavigaster, Chelaner flavigaster] H09
       |            `--R. stigmatica E14
       |                 |--R. s. stigmatica E14
       |                 `--R. s. sublevinodis Emery 1914 E14
       `--+--+--Acanthognathus ocellatus SB08
          |  |--Epopostrumiti BS06
          |  `--+--Solenopsidini BS06
          |     `--+--Monomorium SB08
          |        `--Myrmicaria Saunders 1841 BS06, B03 [incl. Heptacondylus Smith 1858 B03, Physatta Smith 1858 B03]
          |             |--*M. brunnea Saunders 1841 (see below for synonymy) B03
          |             |--M. birmana Forel 1902 [=M. arachnoides race birmana] B03
          |             |--M. eumenoides A61
          |             |--M. exigua BS06
          |             `--M. subcarinata E89
          `--+--+--+--+--Wasmannia auropunctata SB08
             |  |  |  `--Blepharidatta brasiliensis SB08
             |  |  `--+--Pilotrochus besmerus BS06
             |  |     `--Strumigeniti SB08
             |  `--+--+--Basiceros SB08 [Basicerotini]
             |     |  |    `--B. manni BS06
             |     |  `--Eurhopalothrix BS06
             |     |       |--E. bolaui BS06
             |     |       `--E. seguensis N-ZLI11
             |     `--+--Tranopelta gilva SB08
             |        `--+--+--Pheidole SB08
             |           |  `--+--Cephalotes atratus SB08
             |           |     `--Procryptocerus scabriusculus SB08
             |           `--+--Attini SB08
             |              `--+--Daceton [Dacetini, Dacetiti] SB08
             |                 |    `--D. armigerum BS06
             |                 `--Orectognathus SB08 [incl. Arnoldidris B83; Orectognathiti]
             |                      |--O. antennatus E14
             |                      |--O. clarki H09
             |                      |--O. sarasini Emery 1914 E14
             |                      `--O. versicolor BS06
             `--+--+--Meranoplini BS06
                |  `--Proatta butteli SB08
                `--+--Myrmecina Curtis 1829 BS06, B03
                   |    |--*M. latreilli B03
                   |    |--M. graminicola BS06
                   |    `--M. striata Emery 1889 E89
                   `--+--+--+--Rhopalomastix rothneyi BS06
                      |  |  `--Tetrataner BS06
                      |  `--+--Vollenhovia BS06
                      |     `--Tetramorium BS06
                      `--+--+--Leptothorax BS06
                         |  `--Temnothorax BS06
                         |       |--T. cenatus MR08
                         |       |--T. megalops MR08
                         |       `--T. rugatulus BS06
                         `--Cardiocondyla BS06

Myrmicinae incertae sedis:
  Megalomyrmex WB03
  Lenomyrmex WB03
  Zacryptocerus GE05
  Sima B03
  Liomyrmex Mayr 1865 B03
    |--*L. coecus B03
    `--L. aurianus Emery 1889 E89
  Laparomyrmex E89
  Oligomyrmex B03
  Xiphomyrmex Forel 1887 E14, B03
    `--X. tenuicrinis Emery 1914 E14
  Phalacromyrmex B83
  Melissotarsus B83
  Anillomyrma H09
  Podomyrma H09
    |--P. adelaidae H09
    |--P. chasei H09
    |--P. christae H09
    |--P. clarki H09
    |--P. elongata H09
    |--P. ferruginea H09
    |--P. libra H09
    `--P. macrophthalma H09
  Ankylomyrma H09
  Harpogoxenus WW90
  Ephebomyrmex WW90
  Triglyphothrix Forel 1890 B03
    |--*T. walshi Forel 1890 B03
    |--T. decamera Forel 1902 B03
    |--T. musculus Forel 1902 B03
    |--T. obesa (André 1887) [=Tetramorium obesum] B03
    |--T. orissana Forel 1902 [=T. striatidens orissana] B03
    `--T. striatidens (Emery 1889) [=Tetramorium obesum striatidens] B03
  Novomessor cockerelli WW90, C90
  Macromischa WW90
  Veromessor WW90
    |--V. lariversi WW90
    `--V. smithi WW90
  Lordomyrma N-ZLI11
  Paratopula N-ZLI11
  Acanthomyrmex Emery 1893 B03
    |--*A. luciolae Emery 1893 B03
    `--A. ferox N-ZLI11
  Lophomyrmex Emery 1892 B03
    |--*L. quadrispinosus (Jerdon 1851) [=Ocodoma quadrispinosa] B03
    |--L. bedoti Emery 1893 B03
    `--L. burmanus Emery 1893 B03
  Recuvidris N-ZL11
  Rotastruma N-ZL11
  Secostruma N-Zl11
  Trichomyrmex Mayr 1865 B03
    `--*T. rogeri Mayr 1865 B03
  Trigonogaster Forel 1890 B03
    `--*T. recurvispinosa Forel 1890 B03
  Stereomyrmex Emery 1901 B03
    `--*S. horni Emery 1901 B03
  Atopomyrmex André 1889 B03
    |--*A. mocquerysi B03
    `--A. ceylonicus Emery 1901 B03
  Holcomyrmex Mayr 1878 B03
    |--*H. scabriceps Mayr 1878 B03
    |--H. criniceps Mayr 1878 [incl. H. crinicipitoscabriceps Forel 1902] B03
    |--H. glaber André 1883 [incl. H. glaber var. clarus Forel 1902, H. glabrocriniceps Forel 1902] B03
    `--H. muticus Emery 1887 B03

*Messor barbarus (Linn. 1767) B03 [=Formica barbara B03; incl. Atta instabilis Smith 1858 B03, Messor barbarus var. instabilis B03, M. barbarus var. lobulifera Emery in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01, Aphaenogaster barbara var. punctata Forel 1886 B03]

*Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders 1841 [incl. Myrmica fodiens Jerdon 1851, Myrmicaria fodiens, Myrmicaria brunnea var. subcarinata] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G. & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[MR08] Mbanyana, N. & H. G. Robertson. 2008. Review of the ant genus Nesomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in southern Africa. African Natural History 4: 35–55.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[SB08] Schultz, T. R. & S. G. Brady. 2008. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (14): 5435–5440.

[WB03] Ward, P. S., & S. G. Brady. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 361–386.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

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